Miserable phenomena

One of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.

Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་བ། sdug-bsngal-ba

Sanskrit: duḥkha

Pali: dukkha

J. Hopkins: Miserable; Suffering

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