For any spiritual attainment, whether the development of love and compassion or the discriminating awareness of the nature of reality, we need excellent concentration. Without it, we cannot develop these good qualities in the first place, nor maintain them in our minds once we attain them. But the topic of concentration is complex and many different types and states of it appear in different contexts of the Buddhist teachings. Therefore, to know what the texts are talking about and what to develop at which stage of our development, we need to understand and clearly differentiate these states of concentration.
Different States of Concentration
Mental stability (bsam-gtan, Skt. dhyana) is one of the six far-reaching attitudes or six perfections. With it, our minds are no longer tossed by mental or emotional turmoil. To gain mental stability, we need to improve our concentration. The Sanskrit term for concentration may also be translated as “mental fixation” or “mentally fixating.” Concentration or mental fixation (ting-nge-'dzin, Skt. samadhi) is the abiding of the attention either on a specific object or in a specific state of mind, such as love or anger.
According to the Indian master Vasubandhu’s Treasure-House of Special Topics of Knowledge (Skt. Abhidharmakosha), some level of mental fixation accompanies each moment of our experience. Thus concentration is a variable that spans the spectrum from full concentration to no concentration at all. When our concentration is perfected, our attention stays focused on its object without moving and is completely clear and alert. In other words, it is totally free of flightiness of mind and mental dullness, and cannot be distracted by anything. This level of mental fixation is called absorbed concentration.
When absorbed concentration focuses on the four noble truths, or more specifically on a lack of an impossible “soul” (selflessness) of persons or of phenomena – whether conceptually or non-conceptually – it is called total absorption (meditative equipoise) (mnyam-bzhag).
During a meditation session, immediately following a period of total absorption on the lack of an impossible “soul,” when absorbed concentration focuses on persons or phenomena being like an illusion, it is called subsequent realization or subsequent attainment (post-meditation) (rjes-thob). Subsequent attainment cognition of everything being like an illusion may sometimes continue while meditating on other topics and even in between meditation sessions, but it must always be induced first by total absorption on the lack of an impossible “soul” or voidness.
The Five Obstacles to Concentration
Improving our concentration requires working to eliminate the five obstacles to concentration:
- Flightiness of mind and regret (rgod-’gyod)
- Ill-will (gnod-sems)
- Foggy-mindedness and sleepiness (rmugs-gnyid)
- Intentions to experience desirable objects (‘dod-la ‘dun-pa) (the mind goes in that general direction)
- Indecisiveness (the-tshoms).
The five can be summarized by flightiness of mind (a subdivision of distraction or mental wandering) and mental dullness.
- Flightiness of mind (rgod-pa) – this occurs when the “mental glue” of mindfulness loses its hold on the object of focus because of distraction by some desirable object or thought, or by thoughts of regret. We may lose our mental hold completely, just loosen it so that while still holding the object there is an undercurrent of thought, or we may merely experience a mental itchiness to leave the object.
- Mental dullness (bying-ba) – this occurs when mindfulness loses its hold on the object because of the mental hold being loosened because of foggy-mindedness, sleepiness, or indecisiveness. We may lose our mental hold completely, just experience our minds being without sharp focus, or merely not being fresh and vivid in each moment.
Shamatha: A Stilled and Settled State of Mind
Shamatha (zhi-gnas), a stilled and settled state of mind (calm abiding), is attained exclusively with mental consciousness, not sensory consciousness. It is not merely a state of mind stilled of the obstacles to concentration and settled single-pointedly (rtse-gcig) on an object or in a particular state. Thus, it is more than just absorbed concentration. In addition, it has a further mental factor accompanying it: a sense of physical and mental fitness (pliability, flexibility).
A sense of physical and mental fitness (shin-sbyangs) is the mental factor of feeling totally fit to do something – in this case, remain totally concentrated on anything. It is both exhilarating and blissful, but in a non-disturbing way.
Of the two main types of meditation, discerning (analytical) (dpyad-sgom) and stabilizing ('jog-sgom), shamatha is an example of the stabilizing type. As such, it contains the mental factor of gross detection (rtog-pa). Having previously investigated an object, this mental factor adds detection of the main characteristic feature of the object to shamatha’s manner of cognizing it. In other words, shamatha focuses with absorbed concentration on an object, such as the breath, with a gross understanding of its main feature, such as impermanence.
The Indian masters Asanga and Kamalashila provide a long list of objects on which to develop shamatha, and specify the characteristic feature of each that gross detection focuses on. These objects include not only the breath and a visualized image of a Buddha, but also objects that will help cleanse our behavior or attitudes of troublesome states. For example, we can develop shamatha focused on our body with gross detection of its impurity, in order to overcome our attachment to it.
As a side product, shamatha brings extrasensory awareness (advanced awareness) (mngon-shes), such as the ability to see and hear things at a great distance and to be aware of other’s thoughts. In Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Skt. Bodhipathapradipa), the Indian master Atisha emphasized the importance of gaining these abilities to be better able to help others.
Vipashyana: An Exceptionally Perceptive State of Mind
Once we have attained shamatha and we have gross detection of the main characteristic feature of our object of focus, then while maintaining the same concentration level of shamatha, vipashyana (an exceptionally perceptive state of mind, special insight) adds the mental factor of subtle discernment (scrutiny).
Subtle discernment (dpyod-pa) is an active understanding of the fine details of the nature of the object of focus, having previously scrutinized them thoroughly. It does not imply verbal thinking, although it may be induced by verbally thinking. Thus, of the two main types of meditation, discerning and stabilizing, vipashyana emphasizes discerning.
Further, in addition to shamatha’s sense of physical and mental fitness at being able to maintain absorbed concentration on an object for as long as we wish, vipashyana has a second sense of physical and mental fitness present. The additional sense of fitness is the sense of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness (emptiness) or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. It can be focused on any of the objects on which we have focused for attaining shamatha.
Thus, if a state of mind is one of vipashyana, it is pervasive that it is a state of the joined pair: shamatha and vipashyana. In a joined pair (zhi-lhag zung-‘brel), one of the items – in this case, shamatha – is attained first, and then the second item – in this case, vipashyana – is joined to it. Therefore, although we may work on vipashyana before attaining shamatha, we cannot actually attain vipashyana without having first attained shamatha.
Mental stability, concentration, absorbed concentration, total absorption, subsequent attainment, shamatha and vipashyana are each a distinctive type of concentrated mind. When we understand their differences, then in meditation practice we will be able to attain each individually, without muddling them up out of ignorance or confusion.