Ogyen Mindrolling Monastery (U-rgyan sMin-grol-ling dGon-pa, Mindroling Monastery) is the main Nyingma monastery of the Southern Treasure Text Tradition (lho-gter). It was founded in 1676 south of Lhasa by Terdag Lingpa Gyurme Dorje (gTer-bdag gLing-pa ‘Gyur-med rdo-rje), also known as Terchen Chokyi Gyalpo (gTer-chen Chos-kyi rgyal-po) (1646-1719). Terdag Lingpa, one of the great Nyingma revealers of treasure texts, was both a teacher and a disciple of the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Losang Gyatso (rGyal-dbang lnga-pa chen-po Ngag-dbang blo-bzang rgya-mtsho) (1617-1682). The Fifth Dalai Lama had bestowed upon him the authority and all facilities for establishing this monastery, based on several older monasteries. From this time onward, Mindrolling was entrusted with performing rituals for the Tibetan Government. Its reestablished branch in exile in India continues this function.
Mindrolling was destroyed in 1718 by the Dzungar Mongols from East Turkistan. It was rebuilt during the reign of the Seventh Dalai Lama, Kalzang Gyatso (rGyal-ba bdun-pa sKal-bzang rgya-mtsho, rGyal-dbang sKal-bzang) (1708-1757). Dungse Rinchen Namgyal (gDung-sras Rin-chen rnam-rgyal) and Jetsun Migyur Paldron (rJe-btsun Mi-‘gyur dpal-sgron), the son and daughter of Terdag Lingpa, supervised its reconstruction. The son had fled to Kham and the daughter to Sikkim during the Dzungar persecution of the Nyingmas. The reconstruction of the monastery and the revival of its lineages had the patronage of the Regent of Tibet, Pholhane (Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams stobs-rgyal), who drove out the Dzungars from Tibet in 1720 in advance of the Manchu army.
In 1959, there were approximately 300 monks at Mindrolling. Subsequently, the monastery was destroyed once again by the Chinese. At present, the monastery is slowly being reconstructed in Tibet.
The position of Mindrolling Throne Holder (sMin-gling Khri-can) passed from father to son, starting from Terdag Lingpa, for nine generations. The Tenth Mindrolling Throne Holder was the tulku reincarnation of Terdag Lingpa, named Kunga Tenzin (Kun-dga’ bstan-‘dzin), a descendent of the treasure text revealer Terton Rangrig Dorje Rinpoche (gTer-ston Rang-rig rdo-rje Rin-po-che).
The Eleventh Mindrolling Throne Holder, Dondrub Wangyal (Don-grub dbang-rgyal), was the son of Kunga Tenzin. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Tubten Gyatso (rGyal-ba Thub-bstan rgya-mtsho) (1876-1933), finding certain aspects of Dondrub Wangyal’s conduct inappropriate, placed him in permanent retreat and appointed a Regent Throne Holder, Dordzin Namdrol Gyatso (rDo-‘dzin rNam-grol rgya-mtsho). During the minority of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (rGyal-ba bsTan-‘dzin rgya-mtsho) (b. 1935), the Regent of Tibet, Radreng Rinpoche (Rva-sgreng Rin-po-che), appointed Dondrub Wangyal’s brother, Ngawang- Chodrag (Ngag-dbang chos-grags), as the next Regent Throne Holder of Mindrolling. Following his period of tenure, the son of Dondrub Wangyal, Kunzang Wangyal (Kun-bzang dbang-rgyal), became the Twelfth Mindrolling Throne Holder, living at present in exile in India.
The first Abbot of Mindrolling was Gyelsay Tenpay Nyima (rGyal-sras bsTan-pa’i nyi-ma), the brother of Terdag Lingpa. For eight generations, this position passed from father to son. Thus, for almost two centuries, the Throne Holders and Abbots of Mindrolling Monastery were all family descendants of Terdag Lingpa.
There are three classifications of teachings transmitted in the Nyingma tradition: the distant lineage of the enlightening words of the Buddha (bka’-ma ring-brgyud), the near lineage of treasure texts (gter-ma nye-brgyud), and the profound lineage of pure visions (dag-snang zab-brgyud). The course of study and practice at Mindrolling combines the teachings from the first of these two.
Monks study dzogchen (rdzogs-chen, the great completeness) based on the guideline instructions of texts brought from India, which were buried in Tibet and Bhutan, and later unearthed as the southern tradition of treasure texts. In addition, Mindrolling has been a center for the study and practice of the traditional Buddhist fields of knowledge of medicine, astrology, and grammar. Many scholars have trained there from the central Tibetan province of U (dBus), as well as the eastern provinces of Kham (Khams) and Amdo (A-mdo).
Within the context of study and practice of the great texts, the emphasis at Mindrolling has always been on practice. Each year, the monastery engaged in the full rites of the mahayoga tantra practices from the eight transmissions for actualization (sgrub-pa bka’-brgyad). In addition, monks traditionally studied thirteen major sutra and tantra texts, many with the explanation lineage (bshad-brgyud) deriving from Terdag Lingpa. At present, Mindrolling Monastery has been reestablished in Clement Town, Uttar Pradesh, India.
[See: History of Dzogchen]