Details of Karma 4: Revealing Forms of Speech According to Vaibhashika

The Revealing Form of Speech Is the Sound of the Voice

In A Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge, Put in Verses  (IV.3d) (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 11A), Vasubandhu states: 

The revealing form of speech is the sound of speech.
(Skt.) vāgvijñaptistu vāgdhvaniḥ
(Tib.) /ngag rnam rig byed ni ngag sgra/

Vasubandhu adds in his Autocommentary to “A Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge” (Gretil ed. 196.03-04, Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 168B):

“The revealing form of speech is the sound of speech” (means) that the sound that is of the functional nature of speech is the revealing form of speech.
(Skt.) vāgvijñaptistu vāgdhvaniḥ // vāksvabhāvo yaḥ śabdaḥ saiva vāgvijñaptiḥ /
(Tib.) /ngag rnam rig byed 'di ngag sgra/ /ngag gi rang bzhin gyi sgra gang yin pa de nyid ngag gi rnam par rig byed yin no/ 

Jinaputra Yashomitra explains in The Clarified Meaning, An Explanatory Commentary on (Vasubandhu’s) “Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge” (Gretil ed. 351-352, Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 104.7B):

“The revealing (form) of speech” is stated in terms of a specific type (of sound). The revealing (form) of speech does not have the identity-nature of a shape (of the body) like the revealing form of the body (has). What is it? “The revealing form of speech is the sound of speech” has the meaning that it is the sound that has the identity-nature of (spoken) syllables.  
(Skt.) vāgvijñaptis tviti. tuśabdo viśeṣaṇena. yathā kāyavijñaptiḥ saṃsthānātmikā na tathā vāgvijñaptiḥ. kiṃ tarhi. vāgātmako dhvanir varṇātmakaḥ śabda ity arthaḥ. 
(Tib.) /ngag rnam par rig byed ni zhes bya ba la ni zhes bya ba'i sgra ni khyad par du bya ba yin te/ ji ltar lus kyi rnam par rig byed dbyibs kyi bdag nyid yin pa ltar ngag gi rnam par rig byed ni ma yin no/ /'o na ci zhe na/ ngag gi bdag nyid kyi sgra ste yi ge'i bdag nyid kyi sgra'o zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go/

Sthiramati clarifies further in The Meaning of the Facts, An Annotated Subcommentary to (Vasubandhu’s) “Autocommentary to ‘A Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge’” (Derge Tengyur vol. 210, 12A):

Sound in “the revealing form of speech is the sound of speech” must be accurately determined. It is not the shape of the moving lips and so on. Because of it being like that, it (the revealing form of speech) must be the sound that is in the identity-nature of speech. 
(Tib.) /ngag rnam rig byed ni ngag sgra zhes bya ba la/ ni zhes bya ba'i sgra ni nges par gzung ba ste mchu 'gul ba la sogs pa'i dbyibs ni ma yin no/ /de nyid kyi phyir ngag gi rang bzhin gyi sgra gang yin pa zhes bya ba rgyas par smos so/ 

The shape of the lips and tongue as they move while speaking is a revealing form of the body. The same is true of the shape of the hands when signing. Although the shape of the lips and tongue, as well as of the hands, communicates meaning, which can be read by the eyes, the revealing form of speech is only the sound of spoken syllables. The shape of printed words, on the other hand, also communicates meaning, but is neither a revealing form of body nor a revealing form of speech.

Sound as One of the Cognitive Stimulators and Constituent Components

To understand more clearly which type of sound is specified as the revealing form of speech, we need to look at the general presentation of sound in the Vaibhashika system. It is one of the twelve cognitive stimulators (skye-mched, Skt. āyatana) and one of the eighteen constituent components (khams, Skt. dhatu).  

  • The twelve cognitive stimulators are the six cognitive objects (yul, Skt. viṣaya) and the six cognitive sensors (dbang-po, Skt. indriya). The six cognitive objects are the five sensory objects (visible sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and physical sensations) plus all knowable phenomena as objects of mental cognition. The six cognitive sensors are the five physical cognitive sensors – the photo-sensitive cells of the eyes, the sound-sensitive of the ears, smell-sensitive of the nose, taste-sensitive of the tongue, and sensation-sensitive of the body – plus the mental cognitive sensor. The mental cognitive sensor refers to the moment of consciousness immediately preceding another moment of consciousness.
  • The eighteen constituent components are the twelve cognitive stimulators plus the six types of primary consciousness – eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mental consciousness.

The Meaning of a Cognitive Stimulator

Vasubandhu explains the meaning of these twelve being “cognitive stimulators” in Treasure House (I.20ab) (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 2B):

Aggregates, cognitive stimulators, and constituent components have the meaning of heaps, gateways for generation, and families.
(Skt.) rāśyāyadvāragotrārthāḥ skandhāyatanadhātavaḥ /
(Tib.) /spungs dang skye sgo rigs kyi don/ /phung po skye mched khams rnams yin/

He fills in the meaning in his Autocommentary (Skt. Gretil ed. 013.18-19, Tib. Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 35B):

The meaning “gateway for the generation of a consciousness and mental factors” is the meaning of a cognitive stimulator. But etymologically, cognitive stimulators are “what are extending the generation of a consciousness and mental factors.” In other words, they are “what are expanding them (further).” 
(Skt.) cittacaittāyadvārārtha āyatanārthaḥ / nirvacanaṃ tu cittacaittānāmāyaṃ tanvantīti āyatanāni / vistṛṇvantītyarthaḥ / 
(Tib.) /sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye ba'i sgo'i don ni skye mched kyi don te/ nges pa'i tshig tu na sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye ba mched par byed bas skye mched rnams te/ rgyas par byed ces bya ba'i tha tshig go / 

Jinaputra Yashomitra elaborates (Gretil ed., Tib. vol. 103, 40B):

Cognitive stimulators are “what are extending the generation, (namely) the arising, of a consciousness and mental factors.” “There is the arising of primary consciousness depending on both (a cognitive object and corresponding cognitive sensor)” is what establishes (them as) being the cognitive simulators of all (cognitions). 
(Skt.) cittacaittānām āyam utpattiṃ tanvantīty āyatanāni. dvayaṃ pratītya vijñānasyotpattir iti sarveṣām āyatanatvasiddhiḥ. 
(Tib.) /'o na ni /sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye ba 'byung ba mched par byed pas na skye mched rnams so/ /gnyis la brten te rnam par shes pa skye ba thams cad skye mched nyid yin par 'grub po/ 

Sthiramtai adds (Derge Tengyur vol. 210, 70B-71A):

“The gateway for the generation of a consciousness and mental factors is the meaning of a cognitive stimulator.” From what is that understood? According to its etymology, it (a cognitive stimulator) is what gives rise to expanding further “a consciousness and mental factors.” “Generation” denotes “coming about.” There is the generation and attaining of existence as functional entities of a consciousness and mental factors. Because of that, by means of it extending the generation of a consciousness and mental factors, it is a cognitive stimulator. “Extending” means “expanding further.” The words need to be filled in: “causing what has attained existence as a functional phenomenon to continue abiding.” 
As is said, “Because visible sights are seen so long as (they arise) through the gateway of a brahmin’s eye (sensors).” Concerning this, it is proper (for the quote) to mean through the gateway of there being (any of) the six (pairs of cognitive stimulators); in other words, the meaning of the gateway for a consciousness and mental factors is the twelve (cognitive stimulators). That is because it has been said, “From relying on the eye (sensors), there is the generation of eye consciousness (directed) at visible sights and, from the gathering of the three together (eye sensors, a visible sight and eye consciousness), there is the generation of (the mental factors of) feeling and distinguishing simultaneously with contacting awareness.”     
(Tib.) / sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye ba'i sgo'i don ni skye mched kyi don te zhes bya ba la/ gang las rtogs she na nges pa'i tshig tu na sems dang sems las byung ba rnams zhes rgya cher 'byung ngo / /skye ba ni 'ong ba la brjod do/ /sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye zhing bdag gi dngos por red pa'o/ /de'i phyir de dag ni sems dang sems las byung ba rnams skye ba mched par byed pas na skye mched de/ mched par byed/ rgyas par byed/ bdag gi dngos por red pa rgyun du gnas par byed ces bya ba'i tha tshig go/ /ji skad du bram ze mig gi sgo nas ji srid gzugs rnams la blta ba'i phyir zhes bya ba de la/ drug po rnams nyid sgo'i don du 'thad de/ sems dang sems las byung ba'i sgo'i don ni bcu gnyis po rnams te/ mig la brten nas gzugs rnams la mig gi rnam par shes pa skye zhing gsum 'dus pa las reg pa dang lhan cig tshor ba dang 'du shes skye'o zhes gsungs pa'i phyir ro/

The Eighteen Constituent Components

As for the constituent components, Vasubandhu explains in his Autocommentary (Gretil ed. 013.19-24, Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 35B):

The meaning “family” (rigs, Skt. gotra) is the meaning of a constituent component. Just as the many families (of metals) – iron, copper, silver, gold and so on – on a single mountain are called constituent components (of the mountain), likewise the eighteen families (of phenomena) on a single basis or continuum are called the eighteen constituent components. There, the families (of components) are called “sources” (‘byung-gnas, Skt. ākara). 
What are these eye (sensors) and so on the sources of? (They are the sources) of the lineage of (later moments of) themselves, because of their being the equal status causes (of them). In that case, would unaffected phenomena (such as space) be not (counted as) a constituent component? In that case, one could say (they are the sources) of the lineage of the consciousnesses and mental factors (cognizing them). 
In another (explanation) concerning this word “constituent component,” the self-natures or lineages of eighteen (types) of phenomena are “the eighteen constituent components.”
(Skt.) gotrārtho dhātvarthaḥ / yathaikasmin parvate bahūnyayastāmrarūpyasuvarṇādigotrāni dhātava ucyante evam ekasminnāśraye santāne vā aṣṭādaśa gotrāṇi aṣṭādaśa dhātava ucyante / ākarāstatra gotrāṇyuacyante / ta ime cakṣurādayaḥ kasyākarāḥ / svasyā jāteḥ / sabhāgahetutvāt / asaṃskṛtaṃ tarhi na dhātuḥ syāt / cittacaittānāṃ tarhi jātivācako ‘yaṃ dhātuśabda ityapare / aṣṭādaśdharmāṇāṃ jātayaḥ svabhāvā aṣṭādaśa dhātava iti /
(Tib.) rigs kyi don ni khams kyi don te/ dper na ri 'ga' zhig la lcags dang zangs dang dngul dang gser la sogs pa rigs mang po dag yod pa la khams zhes brjod pa de bzhin du rten dang rgyud gcig la rigs bco brgyad dag yod pa la khams bco brgyad ces bya'o/ /de la 'byung gnas dag ni rigs zhes bya ba ni mig la sogs pa 'di dag gang gi 'byung gnas yin zhe na/ rang gi rigs kyi yin te/ skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyu yin pa'i phyir ro/ /'dus ma byas khams ma yin bar 'gyur ro zhe na/ 'o na ni sems dang sems las byung ba rnams yin no/ /gzhan dag na re chos bco brgyad po dag rigs kyi rang bzhin no zhe na/ khams bco brgyad ces bya bas khams zhes bya ba'i sgra 'di ni rigs kyi tshig yin zhes zer ro/

An equal status cause (skal-pa mnyam-ba’i rgyu, Skt. sabhāgahetu) is one whose results have the same ethical status as it has. Thus, phenomena that are constructive, destructive or unspecified give rise to later moments of themselves that are likewise constructive, destructive or unspecified.

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 40B) elaborates:

(Concerning) “On a single basis or continuum,” “on a basis” (rten, Skt. āśraya) (means) on a body, something having the defining characteristic of a whole. “Or on a continuum” (means) on something having the defining characteristic of a flow of consciousnesses and mental factors.  In (“the sources of) the lineage of (later moments of) themselves,” what (does “sources” mean)? “Sources” (means) that from which (later instances) have commenced. “Because of their being the equal status causes (of them)” (means) an eye (sensor) that has arisen previously is the equal status cause of a later one. Thus, a constituent component is a source, (as in the example:) that from which there is an arising of gold and so on is the source of them. “Would, then, unaffected phenomena (such as space) be not (counted as) a constituent component?” (An unaffected phenomenon) is the equal status cause of another unaffected or affected phenomenon. 
Concerning “In that (latter) case, of the consciousnesses and mental factors (cognizing them,” what (are the constituent components in relation to them? They are) “the source (of them)” (which means they are) that from which (later instances of cognitions of them) have commenced. “(Because) there is the arising of primary consciousness depending on both (a cognitive object and corresponding cognitive sensor),” all the constituent components, as the condition for (the arising of) a primary consciousness and congruent (mental factors), are definitely (their) focal and dominating (conditions) and are thus (their) sources.  
(Skt.) ekasmin āśraye saṃtāne veti. āśraye samudāyalakṣaṇe śarīre. saṃtāne vā cittādīnāṃ pravāhalakṣaṇe. svasyā jāteḥ. kiṃ. ākarā iti prakṛtaṃ. sabhāgahetutvāt. pūrvotpannaṃ cakṣuḥ paścimasya sabhāgahetur ity ākaro dhātuḥ. yato hi suvarṇādyutpattiḥ. te teṣām ākarāḥ. asaṃskṛtaṃ na dhātuḥ syāt. na hy asaṃskṛtam asaṃskṛtasyānyasya vā sabhāgahetuḥ. cittacaittānāṃ tarhīti. kiṃ. ākarā iti prakṛtaṃ. dvayaṃ pratītya vijñānasyotpattir iti sarvadhātavo vijñānasya sasaṃprayogasya pratyayo 'vaśyam ālambanam adhipatiś cety ākarāḥ.
(Tib.) /rten tam rgyud gcig la zhes bya ba la rten ni lus kyi mtshan nyid spyi'o/ /rgyud ni sems dang sems las byung ba rnams kyi rgyun gyi mtshan nyid do/ /rang gi rigs kyi yin te ci zhe na/ 'byung gnas dag ces bya bar skabs dang sbyar ro/ /skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyu yin pa'i phyir ro zhes bya ba ni mig sngar skyes pa ni phyi ma'i skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyu yin pas 'byung gnas ni khams yin te/ gang las gser la sogs pa 'byung ba de dag ni de dag gi 'byung gnas yin no/ /'dus ma byas khams ma yin par 'gyur te 'dus ma byas ni 'dus ma byas sam gzhan gyi skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyu ma yin no/ sems dang sems las byung ba rnams kyi yin no zhes bya ba ci zhe na 'byung gnas dag ces skabs dang sbyar ro/ /gnyis la brten nas rnam par shes pa skye ba'i phyir gdon mi za bar khams thams cad rnam par shes pa mtshungs par ldan pa dang bcas pa skye ba'i dmigs pa yin pa dang bdag po yin pas 'byung gnas dag yin no/ 

The constituent components are sources of later moments of themselves. In the case of the five types of physical cognitive sensors, such as the eye sensors and the great elements (earth, fire, water and wind) that comprise them, previous moments of them are the sources and equal status causes of later moments of them. These all occur on the basis of a body, taken as a whole continuum of bodies over many lifetimes. 

As for the components that are sources and equal status causes of a single continuum of consciousnesses and mental factors, they include both those constituent components that themselves are ways of being aware of something – the six types of consciousness and the mental sensors – as well as those that are the cognitive objects of that continuum – the rest of the constituent components. In this way, the eye consciousness and mental factors cognizing visible forms that are organic parts of the bodies of others and of visible forms of inorganic objects – plus the great elements that comprise both – are sources and equal status causes for later moments, in the same mental continuum, of eye consciousness and mental factors cognizing them.

Vaibhashika is unique among the Buddhist tenet systems in asserting that unaffected phenomena – in other words, static phenomena, such as space – are substantially established (rdzas-su grub-pa), which means able to perform a function. They perform the function of acting as the focal condition for the cognition of them; in other words, they act as the objects at which the mental consciousness and accompanying mental factors aim when they cognize them. Thus, the mental consciousness and mental factors cognizing them are sources and equal status causes for later moments, in the same mental continuum, of mental consciousness and mental factors cognizing them.

Thus, for all cognitions: 

  • Those constituent components that are also the six cognitive stimulators that are cognitive objects are the focal conditions (dmigs-rkyen, Skt. alambanapratyaya).
  • Those that are also the six cognitive stimulators that are cognitive sensors are the dominating conditions (bdag-rkyen, Skt. adhipatipratyaya).
  • Those that are the six types of consciousness are the immediately preceding conditions (de-ma-thag rkyen, Skt. samanantarapratyaya).

In this way, all eighteen constituent components are the constituent components of all cognitions.

The Constituent Components That Are Appropriated and Those That Are Non-Appropriated

Vasubandhu points out a division among the eighteen constituent components that is relevant to understanding what type of sound the revealing form of sound is. In Treasure House (I.34cd) (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 3A), Vasubandhu states:

The seven constituent components that are minds, and part from (the constituent component that is all knowable) phenomena, are with focal (objects). Those nine (constituent components) that are those eight and sound are non-appropriated (ma-zin, Skt. anupātta); the other nine are twofold.
(Skt.) sapta sālambanāścittadhātavaḥ ardhaṃ ca dharmataḥ / navānupāttā te cāṣṭau śabdaśca anye nava dvidhā.
(Tib.) dmigs bcas sems kyi khams bdun no/ /chos kyi phyed kyang ma zin dgu/ brgyad po de dag rnams dang sgra/ /dgu po gzhan ni rnam pa gnyis/

Vasubandhu explains in Autocommentary (Gretil ed. 022.27-023.17, Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 43A):

Which (of the eighteen constituent components) are with a focal (object) and which are without a focal (object)? As for “the seven constituent components that are consciousnesses,” the constituent components that are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind consciousnesses and the constituent component that is the mind (sensor) – these seven constituent components that are minds are with a focal (object), because they are what are cognitively taking cognitive objects. As for “as well as a part of (the constituent component that is all knowable) phenomena,” (that refers to the part that has) the functional nature of mental factors that are with a focal (object). The ten left over – the constituent components that are forms of physical phenomena and the part of the constituent component that is (all knowable) phenomena that are those that are not congruent (with consciousness) are established as “without a focal (object).”   
Which are appropriated (zin-pa, Skt. upātta) and which are non-appropriated (ma-zin, Skt. anupātta)? The seven and a half that were spoken of as being with a focal (object), with the one that is a part explained as being the eighth – those eight and sound are the ones that are the nine that are non-appropriated. The nine others are twofold: appropriated and non-appropriated. There, the presently-happening eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body (sensors) are appropriated. The no-longer-happening and not-yet-happening ones are non-appropriated. The presently-happening constituent components that are visible sights, smells, tastes, and physical sensations that are not distinct from those that are (the physical sights and so on of the five physical, sensory) cognitive sensors are appropriated. The others are non-appropriated, like (these sensory objects) in the head hair, body hair, nails, and teeth, except their roots, and in the feces, urine, saliva, mucus, blood and so on, and in earth, water and so on (that comprise them).
What is the meaning of “appropriated?” It (means) taken, by consciousness and mental factors, beneath them as the phenomena that are their physical support (rten, Skt. adhiṣṭhāna), because of (the two: mind and supporting matter) being things that follow and conform with each other by means of both being of benefit or harm. 
They (the appropriated constituent components) are what are called in worldly (language) “animate” (matter) (sems-pa-dang bcas-pa, Skt. sacetana; literally, connected with intention).
(Skt.) kati sālambanāḥ katyanālambanāḥ / sapta sālambanāścittadhātavaḥ cakṣuḥśrotraghrāṇajihvākāyamanovijñānadhātavo manodhātuśca ete sapta cittadhātavaḥ sālambanā viṣayagrahaṇāt / ardhaṃ ca dharmataḥ / sālambanaṃ yaccaitasikasvabhāvam / śeṣā daśa rūpiṇo dhātavo dharmadhātupradeśaścāsaṃprayuktako 'nālambanā iti siddham / katyupāttāḥ katyanupāttāḥ / navānupāttāḥ / katame nava / ye sapta sālambanā uktāḥ aṣṭamaṣyārdhena sārdham / te cāṣṭau śabdaśca ime te navānupāttāḥ / sapta cittadhātavo dharmadhātuḥ śabdadhātuśca / anye nava dvidhā // upāttā anupāttāśca / tatra cakṣuḥśrotraghrāṇajihvākāyāḥ pratyutpannā upāttāḥ / atītānāgatā anupāttāḥ / rūpagandharasaspraṣṭavyadhātavaḥ pratyutpannā indriyāvinirbhāgiṇa upāttāḥ / anye 'nupāttāstadyathā mūlavarjeṣu keśaromanakhadanteṣu viṇmūtrakheṭasiṃghāṇakaśeṇitādiṣu bhūmyudakādiṣu ca / upāttamiti ko 'rthaḥ / yaccittacaittairadhiṣṭhānabhāvenopagṛhītamanugrahopaghātābhyāmanyonyānuvidhānāt / yalloke sacetanamityucyate /
(Tib.) /dmigs pa dang bcas pa rnams ni du/ dmigs pa med pa rnams ni du zhe na/ dmigs bcas sems kyi khams bdun no/ /mig dang / rna ba dang / sna dang lce dang / lus dang yid kyi rnam par shes pa'i khams rnams dang / yid kyi khams te/ sems kyi khams bdun po de dag ni yul 'dzin pa'i phyir dmigs pa dang bcas pa dag go/ /chos kyi skye mched kyang / dmigs pa dang bcas pa yin te/ sems las byung ba'i rang bzhin gang yin pa'o/ /lhag ma gzugs can gyi khams bcu po dag dang / chos kyi khams kyi phyogs ldan pa ma yin pa ni dmigs pa med pa zhes bya bar grub bo/ /zin pa rnams ni du/ ma zin pa rnams ni du zhe na/ ma zin dgu/ dgu gang zhe na/ dmigs pa dang bcas pa bdun brgyad pa'i phyed dang bcas te bshad pa gang dag yin pa/ brgyad po de dag rnams dang sgra/ /de ltar na sems kyi khams bdun dang / chos kyi khams dang / sgra'i khams dang / khams dgu po de dag ni ma zin pa yin no/ /dgu po gzhan na rnam pa gnyis/ /zin pa dag kyang yin/ ma zin pa dag kyang yin te/ de la mig dang rna ba dang sna dang lce dang lus dang da ltar byung ba rnams ni zin pa yin no/ /'das pa dang ma 'ongs pa rnams ni ma zin pa yin no/ /gzugs dang / dri dang / ro dang / reg bya'i khams da ltar byung ba dbang po dang tha mi dad pa rnams ni zin pa yin no/ /gzhan dag ni ma zin pa rnams te/ 'di lta ste rtsa ba ma gtogs pa'i skra dang / ba spu dang / sen mo dang / so dag la yod pa dang / phyis dang / gcin dang / mchil ma dang| snabs dang / khrag la sogs pa dag la yod pa dang / sa dang chu la sogs pa dag la yod pa lta bu'o/ /zin pa zhes bya ba'i don ci zhe na/ phan pa dang gnod pa dag gis phan tshun mthun par byed pa'i phyir sems dang sems las byung ba rnams kyis rten gyi dngos por nye bar gzung ba ste/ 'jig rten gyi na sems pa dang bcas pa zhes brjod pa gang yin pa'o/ 

Jinaputra Yashomitra explains further (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol 103, 60B-61A):

“Because of (the two: mind and supporting matter) being things that follow and conform with each other by means of both being of benefit and harm (to each other)” (means) because of the coming about of benefit and harm to the mind and mental factors through benefit and harm (coming) to the cognitive constituents that are the eye (sensors) and so on by things with the defining characteristics of eye medicine and so on and a punch with the fist and so on; and also because of the coming about of benefit and harm to the cognitive constituents that are the eye (sensors) and so on by things with the defining characteristics of being (a cognitive stimulator of) satisfaction and dissatisfaction to the mind and mental factors.
Thus, what was said as being those that are “taken, by consciousness and mental factors, beneath them as the phenomena that are their physical support” has the meaning of “(those that have been) made as their own.”
“They (the appropriated constituent components) are what are called in worldly (language) ‘animate’ (matter; literally, connected with intention)” means ‘living’ (matter; literally, connected with life force).
(Skt.) anugrahopaghātābhyām anyonyānuvidhānād iti. cakṣurdhātvādīnām anugrahopaghātābhyām aṃjanādipāṇighātādilakṣaṇābhyāṃ cittacaittānām anugrahopaghātau bhavataḥ. cittacaittānāṃ cānugrahopaghātābhyāṃ saumanasyadaurmanasyalakṣaṇābhyāṃ cakṣurdhātvādīnām anugrahopaghātau bhavataḥ. atas te cittacaittair adhiṣṭhānabhāvenopagṛhītā ucyante svīkṛtā ity arthaḥ. yal loke sacetanam iti sajīvam ity arthaḥ.
(Tib.) /phan pa dang gnod pa dag gis phan tshun mthun par byed pa'i phyir zhes bya ba ni mig gi khams la sogs pa la phan pa dang gnod pa mig sman dang lag pas bsnun pa la sogs pa'i mtshan nyid dag gis kyang sems dang sems las byung ba rnams la phan pa dang gnod pa dag tu 'gyur la sems dang sems las byung ba rnams la phan pa dang gnod pa yid bde ba dang yid mi bde ba'i mtshan nyid dag gis kyang mig gi khams la sogs pa la phan pa dang gnod pa dag tu 'gyur ro/ /de'i phyir sems dang sems las byung ba rnams kyis rten gyi dngos pos nye bar bzung ba zhes bya ba ste/ bdag gir byas zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go/ /'jig rten na sems pa dang bcas pa zhes brjod pa gang yin pa'o zhes bya ba ni srog dang bcas pa zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go/ 

The Eight Types of Sound

To understand more clearly which type of sound is specified as the revealing form of speech, let us look at the general presentation of sound in the light of these details of what “appropriated” means.

Vasubandhu specifies in Treasure House (I.10d) (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 2A):

Sound is of eight types.
(Skt.) śabdastvaṣṭavidhaḥ 
(Tib.) /sgra ni rnam pa brgyad yod de/ 

Vasubandhu lists and defines them in his Autocommentary (Gretil ed. 6.23-7.01, Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 30B):

“Sound is of eight types.” “(Sound) having as its cause great elements (earth, fire, water and wind) that are appropriated or non-appropriated and which is communicative of a sentient being (sems-can-du ston-pa, Skt. sattvāvākhya) or noncommunicative.” (That makes) four types. Further, from each of these (four) having divisions of pleasing (yid-du ‘ong-ba, Skt. manojña) or unpleasing ones, there are eight types.
[1] Of these, that which has as its cause great elements that are appropriated is the sound of a hand (snapping the fingers) or speech. 
[2] That which has as its cause great elements that are non-appropriated is the sound of the wind, forests, rivers and so on.
[3] That which is communicative of a sentient being is the sound of the revealing (form) of speech.
[4] The other (sounds) are noncommunicative of a sentient being. 
(Skt.) śabdastvaṣṭavidhaḥ / upāttānupāttamahābhūtahetukaḥ sattvāsattvākhyaśceti caturvidhaḥ / punarmanojñāmanojñabhedādaṣṭavidho bhavati / tatropāttamahābhūtahetuko yathā hastavākchabdaḥ / anupāttamahābhutahetuko yathā vāyuvanaspatinadīśabdaḥ / sattvākhyo vāgvijñaptiṣabdaḥ / asattvākhyo 'nyaḥ //
(Tib.) /sgra ni rnam pa brgyad yod de/ /zin pa dang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba sems can dang / sems can ma yin par ston pa ste rnam pa bzhi'o/ /de yang yid du 'ong ba dang yid du mi 'ong ba'i bye brag gis rnam pa brgyad du 'gyur ro// de la zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba ni 'di lta ste/ lag pa dang ngag gi sgra lta bu'o/ /ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba ni 'di lta ste/ rlung dang / nags tshal dang / chu'i sgra lta bu'o/ /sems can du ston pa ni ngag gi rnam par rig byed kyi sgra'o/ / gzhan ni sems can du ston pa ma yin pa'o/ 

Let us look more closely at each of these eight types of speech.

Sounds Having as Their Cause Great Elements That Are Appropriated 

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 22B-23A) explains:

(In the term) “(sounds) having as their cause great elements that are appropriated,” elements that are not distinct from those of presently-happening cognitive sensors (are) those that are appropriated; other (great elements are) non-appropriated. “(Sounds having) appropriated great elements as their cause” (is the meaning of sounds) having as their cause great elements that are appropriated. “Like the sounds of a hand (snapping the fingers) or speech” – what is meant is, “If it (that sound of the hand or speech) is generated from the mental continuum of a sentient being.”
(Skt.) upāttamahābhūtahetuka iti. pratyutpannānīndriyāvinirbhāgāni bhūtāny upāttāni. anyāni anupāttāni. upāttāni mahābhūtāni hetur asyeti upāttamahābhūtahetukaḥ. yathā hastavācchabda iti. yadi sattvasaṃtānaja ity abhipretaḥ.
(Tib.) /zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba zhes bya ba ni da ltar gyi 'byung ba chen po dbang po dang tha mi dad par 'jug pa dag ni zin pa yin la gzhan dag ni ma zin pa yin no/ /'di la rgyu zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po dag yod pas zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba'o/ /'di lta ste lag pa dang ngag gi sgra lta bu'o zhes bya ba ni

Vasubandhu speaks of the physical body as being a conglomerate of the five physical cognitive sensors. They include the body sensors of both the hand and the lips and tongue and are produced from the great elements of earth, water, fire, and wind, in the sense that the great elements are their substantial basis (rdzas-kyi gzhi). Thus, any sound that is produced by the hand snapping its fingers or by the lips and tongue when breath (the wind element) passes through them has, in a sense, the great elements of the body sensor as its cause. But this is only the case when those sounds are generated from a hand or from the lips and the tongue that are part of the continuum of the person that is the agent presently making the sound. Nevertheless, the sounds that are the revealing forms of speech are not revealing forms of body, despite having as their cause the great elements of the body sensors.

Sounds Having as Their Cause Great Elements That Are Non-Appropriated 

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 22B-23A) continues:

But if an external emanation in the aspect of a human were to make the sound of the hand (snapping the fingers) or speech, that (sound) should be understand as having the essential nature of (a sound) having as its cause great elements that are non-appropriated, because of it being something that has (a self-nature) distinct from (the great elements comprising the physical, sensory) cognitive sensors. Its human speech, in fact, would be spoken from the power of the emanator. It will be speaking, after all (like this), “All emanations are speaking (the words) of the one alone who is speaking, and all are emanating the silence of the one alone who has become silent.” 
(Skt.). bāhyo 'pi hi nirmito mānuṣākāro hastavācchabdaṃ kuryāt. sa cānupāttamahābhūtahetukasvabhāvo 'vagantavya indriyavinirbhāgavatitvāt. sa ca mānuṣīm api vācaṃ nirmātṛvaśād bhāṣet. vakṣyati hy ekasya bhāṣamāṇasya bhāṣante sarvanirmitāḥ. ekasya tūṣṇīṃbhūtasya sarve tūṣṇīṃbhavanti te.
(Tib) phyi'i sprul pa mi dang 'dra ba yang lag pa dang ngag gi sgra 'byin par 'gyur te yang dbang po dang tha dad par 'byung ba'i phyir ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba'i ngo bo nyid yin par khong du chud par bya'o/ /de ni sprul pa po'i dbang gis mi'i tshig kyang smra bar byed de/ gcig po smra bar byed na ni/ /sprul pa thams cad smra bar 'gyur/ /gcig po mi smrar gyur na ni/ /sprul pa thams cad mi smrar 'gyur/ /zhes 'byung ste phyi'i sprul pa'i sgra de yang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba yin pas mi gzung ngo / /'di lta ste rlung dang nags tshal dang chu'i sgra lta bu'o zhes bya ba la/ 'di lta ste zhes bya ba'i sgra ni dper brjod pa yin pa'i phyir ro/

Without going into a great deal of detail about the different types of emanations (sprul-pa, Skt. nirmita), the reference here is to an external emanation belonging to the plane of sensory objects of desire (the desire realm) produced by the power of meditation by someone who has attained an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Regarding such an emanation, Vasubandhu states in Treasure House (VII.499ab) (Gretil. ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 23B):

An emanation on the (plane of) sensory objects of desire has four external cognitive stimulators.
(Skt.) kāmāptaṃ nirmitaṃ bāhyaṃ caturāyatanaṃ 
(Tib.) /'dod par gtogs pa'i sprul pa ni/ /phyi yi skye mched bzhi 

In Autocommentary (Gretil ed. 425.19-20, Derge Tengyur vol. 141, 63A), Vasubandhu fills in:

“An emanation on the (plane of) sensory objects of desire has four external cognitive stimulators” (means) an emanation that is within the sphere of (the plane of) sensory objects of desire has a functional nature of the four cognitive stimulators: visible form, smell, taste and tactile sensation.  
(Skt.) kāmāptaṃ nirmitaṃ bāhyaṃ caturāyatanaṃ kāmāvacaraṃ nirmāṇaṃ rūparasagandhaspraṣṭavyāyatanasvabhāvam /
(Tib.) /'dod par gtogs pa'i sprul pa ni/ phyi'i skye mched bzhi/ 'dod pa na spyod pa'i sprul pa ni gzugs dang dri dang ro dang reg bya'i skye mched kyi rang bzhin yin no/

Yashomitra Jinaputra (Gretil. ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 281A) adds:

“Four external cognitive stimulators” (indicates that) that which belongs to a person (Tib. the internal cognitive stimulators) is not emanated, because of the absurd conclusion that, if that were emanated, there would be the coming into existence of a sentient being that did not previously exist. 
(Skt.) bāhyaṃ caturāyatanam iti. nādhyātmikaṃ nirmīyate. tannirmāṇe saty apūrvasattvaprādurbhāvaprasaṃgāt. 
(Tib.) /phyi'i skye mched bzhi zhes bya ba ni nang gi skye mched ni sprul par mi byed de/ de sprul na sngon med pa'i sems can 'byung bar thal bar 'gyur ba'i phyir ro/ 

To this, in A Commentary to “A Treasure House (of Special Topics of Knowledge)”: A Filigree of Abhidharma, Chim Jampeyang (Sera Je Library ed. 623) adds further:

Sound cannot be emanated because it does not have continuity.
(Tib.) sgra ni rgyun med pa’i phyir mi sprul lo/

Of these twelve cognitive stimulators, emanations belonging to the plane of sensory objects of desire only have four: visible form, smell, taste, and tactile sensation. They appear having an emanated visible form, smell, taste, and physical sensation of their own, and these last with continuity so long as the emanation appears. However, if they are in the form of a sentient being, they do not have their own emanated internal cognitive sensors, which are cognitive stimulators belonging to a person; otherwise, they would be a separate sentient being. 

Unlike the visible form of an emanation in the aspect of a human, for instance, which appears without a break so long as the emanation appears, any sounds that the emanation emits arise only when the emanator wishes for them to arise; they do not arise continuously and thus do not have continuity. When the emanator wishes for the emanation not to emit any sounds, the emanation remains silent. Thus, as Jinaputra Yashomitra quotes, even if an emanator emanates many emanations and many moments of them, any sounds of speech that those emanations make are sounds made by the emanating mind of the emanator, not sounds causally produced by the emanated great elements of the emanations. Thus, the sound of the hand of an emanation snapping its fingers or the sound of the speech of an emanation is not a sound that is causally produced by great elements that are appropriated. 

Although most of us have never encountered emanations, a modern example would be the sound of speech emanating from the speaker on a digital device, whether those sounds are generated directly by a person, prerecorded, or mechanically created by someone. The elements of the phone are non-appropriated and do not constitute the elements of the cognitive sensors of a separate sentient being. The phone is not a person speaking by the force of its own intentions.   

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 103, 22B-23A) goes on:

And regarding externally emanated sound, “that having as its cause great elements that are non-appropriated” is mentioned here (as being) “like the sound of wind, forests and rivers” because of the word “like” having the meaning of (further) examples.
(Skt.) tasya ca bāhyanirmitaśabdasya anupāttamahābhūtahetuka ity atra grahaṇaṃ. yathā vāyuvanaspatinadīśabda iti. yathāśabdasyodāharaṇārthatvāt.
(Tib.) phyi'i sprul pa'i sgra de yang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba yin pas mi gzung ngo / /'di lta ste rlung dang nags tshal dang chu'i sgra lta bu'o zhes bya ba la/ 'di lta ste zhes bya ba'i sgra ni dper brjod pa yin pa'i phyir ro/

A sound emanated by an external inanimate object, such as the wind, a forest or a river obviously also does not have as its cause great elements of a cognitive sensor that have been appropriated as a physical support for consciousness and mental factors because inanimate objects do not have cognitive sensors.

Sound That Is Communicative or Noncommunicative of a Sentient Being

Jinaputra Yashomitra continues:

That which is communicative of a sentient being is the sound of the revealing (form) of speech. The other (type of sound also having as its cause appropriated great elements) is noncommunicative of a sentient being. One that itself conveys a sentient being is one that is communicative of a sentient being. For instance, by means of the sound that is the revealing form of speech, one is caused to know, “This is a sentient being.” Excluding that sound that is the revealing (form) of speech, the other (type of sound also having as its cause appropriated great elements), like the sound of the hand (snapping the fingers), is simply noncommunicative (of it being produced by a sentient being, because of not being the sound of spoken syllables).
“Which type (of sound) is one that arises not from the mental continuum of a sentient being?” will (now) be explained. It is like this: (a sound) having as its cause appropriated great elements is one that is communicative of a sentient being or one that is noncommunicative of a sentient being. (A sound) having as its cause non-appropriated great elements is also like that (it is either communicative or noncommunicative). A sound (produced by) an emanation (which is a sound having as its cause non-appropriated great elements) and one that has the self-nature of a revealing (form) of speech (which does have as its cause appropriated great elements) are (both) communicative of a sentient being (since both are the sounds of spoken syllables). Likewise, of those that are noncommunicative of a sentient being, there is also the sound of a hand (snapping its fingers, which has as its cause appropriated great elements) and the sound of the wind, a forest, and a river (which also has as its cause non-appropriated great elements). (These make) four kinds of sound. From dividing them into pleasing and unpleasing (sounds), there are further eight types.
(Skt.) sattvākhyo vāgvijñaptisabdo 'sattvākhyo 'nya iti. sattvam ācaṣṭe sattvākhyaḥ. vāgvijñaptiśabdena hi sattvo 'yam iti vijñāyate. taṃ vāgvijñaptiśabdaṃ varjayitvā anyaḥ śabdo hastaśabdo 'pi yāvad asattvākhya eva. kim aṃga asattvasaṃtānaja iti vyākhyātaṃ bhavati. tad evam upāttamahābhūtahetukaḥ sattvākhyaś cāsattvākhyaś ca bhavati. anupāttamahābhūtahetuko 'pi. nirmitaśabdo vāgvijñaptisvabhāvaḥ sattvākhyaḥ. tasyaiva hastaśabdo vāyuvanaspatyādiśabdaś cāsattvākhya iti. caturvidhaḥ śabdo manojñāmanojñabhedāt punar aṣṭavidho bhavati. 
(Tib) /sems can du ston pa ni ngag gi rnam par rig byed kyi sgra'o/ /gzhan ni sems can du ston pa ma yin pa'o zhes bya ba ni sems can yin par ston pa ni sems can du ston pa ste ngag gi rnam par rig byed kyi sgras ni 'di ni sems can yin no zhes bya bar shes par byed do/ /ngag gi rnam par rig byed kyi sgra de las ma gtogs pa'i sgra gzhan ni lag pa'i sgra'i bar yang sems can du ston pa ma yin pa yin na sems can ma yin pa'i rgyud las skyes pa lta smos kyang ci dgos zhes rnam par bshad par 'gyur ro/ /de ltar na zin pa'i 'byung ba'i rgyu las byung ba ni sems can du ston pa yang yin la sems can du ston pa ma yin pa yang yin no/ /ma zin pa'i 'byung ba'i rgyu las byung ba yang sprul pa'i sgra ngag gi rnam par rig byed kyi ngo bo nyid ni sems can du ston pa yin la/ de nyid kyi lag pa'i sgra dang rlung dang nags tshal la sogs pa'i sgra ni sems can du ston pa ma yin pa yin pas sgra rnam pa bzhi'o/ /yang yid du 'ong ba dang yid du mi 'ong ba'i bye brag gis rnam pa brgyad yin no/

Sound That Is Pleasing and Unpleasing

Sthiramati (Derge Tengyur vol. 209, 46A, 46B-47A) explains:

Pleasing (sound) is (sound that is) agreeable to the mind, like (the sound of words) honoring (your) mother and honoring (your) father…. 
As it is the case that visible sights and so on also have a division into pleasing and unpleasing (ones), then suppose you ask, “Does only sound have two aspects (of each)?” because (each may) have as its cause appropriated or non-appropriated great elements.? “Don’t visible forms and so on, while being pleasing and unpleasing, (also) have (a division into) those having as their cause appropriated and non-appropriated elements?” you may ask. 
(Yes, they do, but) only the causes of sounds have the two aspects (being appropriated and non-appropriated) like visible forms (have. Sound itself is non-appropriated). In terms of its essential nature, the defining characteristics of sound, as spoken of in the (Great Extensive Commentarial) Treatise, are like that. Because of that, by means of divisions into mutually exclusive (pairs), they (sounds) are spoken of like speaking of (the mutually exclusive pair) color and shape. 
Further, there is the division of sounds that have as their cause appropriated great elements into those that arise from the work of a sentient being and so on (and those that don’t). In reference to this, there is (the sound) produced from being affected by the hand (snapping the fingers) that is also produced from being affected by a sentient being or (the sound that is) the revealing form of speech. (But the difference is that) the (sound that is) the revealing form of speech also requires it being the platform of words. Likewise, the ethical divisions of constructive and so on are known as having many aspects.
(Sounds that are) communicative of a sentient being and noncommunicative of a sentient being also each have (the division of) those that have as their cause appropriated and non-appropriated great elements. For there to be no confusion (between these two types of sound), each is specifically mentioned. 
As for confusion like between (something being) a color or a shape, it is accepted that some (visible sights) – blue and so on and long and so on – are to be mentioned separately (as one or the other), but, in this case, confusion (between the two, colors and shapes) is not asserted. There is no cause (for confusion between the two) to be known. Although blue and so on and long and so on are exclusively a color or a shape, it is not the case with cloudy (which can be discriminated as one or the other) and so they are to be known as (exceptions) to be indicated on the side. But in this case (of cloudy and so on), a cause for confusion (between it being a color or a shape) is (also) not to be known. 
Thus, like regarding things having as their cause appropriated and non-appropriated (great elements), the (Great Extensive Commentarial) Treatise explains specific causes for something being to the side of one or the other (in the case of sounds – like because of being communicative of a sentient being or noncommunicative of one) –but does not explain them (in the case of visible sights being a color or a shape).
As for what I have explained concerning the state of being pleasing or unpleasing also pertaining to visible sights and so on, because it is obvious as the intention, then from thinking that it is the masters’ intended meaning, I have divided (visible sights) and explained them like that. 
(Tib.) yid du 'ong ba ni yid dang mthun pa ste mar 'dzin pa dang phar 'dzin pa bzhin no/ …. /yid du 'ong ba dang yid du mi 'ong ba'i dbye ba gzugs la sogs pa rnams la yang yod na sgra kho na rnam pa gnyis zhe na zin pa dang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba'i phyir ro/ /yid du 'ong ba dang yid du mi 'ong ba bzhin gzugs la sogs pa rnams la yang zin pa dang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba'i rgyu las byung ba yod pa ma yin nam zhe na/ gzugs la sogs pa rnams kyi bzhin du sgra'i rgyu kho na rnam pa gnyis te/ rang gi ngo bo la yang de ltar bstan bcos su smos pa sgra'i mtshan nyid de/ de'i phyir ldog pa'i dbye bas kha dog dang dbyibs la brjod pa bzhin du brjod do/
 /gzhan la yang dbye ba yod de/ zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba ni sems can la sogs pa'i 'du byed las skyes pa'o/ /de la nges par bltos pa sems can gyi mngon par 'du byed pa las skyes pa de yang lag pa la sogs pa'i mngon par 'du byed pa las skyes pa'am ngag gi rnam par rig byed do/ /ngag gi rnam bar rig byed kyang ming gi gnas rnams la bltos pa'o/ /de ltar dge ba la sogs pa'i dge bas dbye ba rnam pa mang du yod ces bya'o/ /sems can du ston pa dang sems can du mi ston pa dag re re yang zin pa dang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba chen po'i rgyu las byung ba ni mi 'khrul ba'i phyir so sor mngon par brjod pa'o/ /kha dog dang dbyibs lta bu 'khrul pa la yang re zhig sngon po la sogs pa dang ring po la sogs pa so sor mngon par brjod par 'dod do/ /'dir ni 'khrul pa la yang mi 'dod do zhes pa rgyu med bar shes bar bya'o/ /sngon po la sogs pa dang ring po la sogs pa kha dog dang dbyibs kyi ldog pas sprin la sogs pa rnams la med kyang logs su bstan bar shes par bya'o/ /'dir rgyu shes bar bya ba ma yin te bstan bcos phyogs su lhung ba rgyu'i bye brag bshad pa dang ma bshad par gyur pa zin pa dang ma zin pa'i 'byung ba'i rgyu bzhin no/ /ji skad bshad pa'i yid du 'ong ba dang mi 'ong ba nyid gzugs la sogs pa rnams la yang zhes pa de yang dgongs par mngon pa'i phyir 'di slob dpon gyi dgongs pa'o snyam nas 'dir 'di ltar rab tu phye zhing yongs su bshad do/ 

Pleasing sounds also include the sounds of constructive actions of speech, such as the sounds of truthful speech and kind speech. Unpleasing sounds include the sounds of destructive actions of speech, such as those of untruthful speech and harsh speech. Note that one of the four pairs from the eight worldly concerns (‘jig-rten-pa’i chos-brgyad; eight transitory things in life, eight worldly dharmas) is hearing or not hearing (snyan ma-snyan), which refers to hearing or not hearing pleasing sounds.  

More specifically, pleasing and unpleasing sounds refer to the types of sounds that one hears as the result of the karmic forces built up from constructive or destructive actions of speech. On the basis of the mental factor of contacting awareness (reg-pa, Skt. sparśa) of these sounds while hearing them, one experiences happiness or unhappiness, also as a result of previously built-up karmic forces. From The Mahayana Sutra Called “The Arya Bodhisattva Basket” ('Phags-pa byang-chub sems-dpa'i sde-snod ces-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po'i mdo, Āryabodhisattvapitaka-nāma-mahāyānasūtra) (Derge Kagyur vol. 41,12b):

Whoever speaks harsh phrases will never abide coming to hear pleasing (sounds) but will abide coming to hear those that are unpleasing. Whoever abandons (speaking) harsh words will not abide coming to hearing pleasing (sounds) but will abide coming to hear those that are unpleasing.  
(Tib.) gang tshig rtsub po smra bas rtag par yid du 'ong ba thos par 'gyur ba de ni gnas ma yin no/ /gang yid du mi 'ong ba thos par 'gyur ba de ni gnas so/ /gang tshig rtsub po spangs pas yid du mi 'ong ba thos par 'gyur ba de ni gnas ma yin no/ /gang yid du 'ong ba thos par 'gyur ba de ni gnas so/

Also, from The Mahayana Sutra called “Requested by the Arya Naga King Sagara” (‘Phags-pa klu’i rgyal-po rgya-mtshos zhus-pa zhes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po’i mdo, Skt. Āryasāgarānāgarājaparipṛccha-nāma-mahāyānasūtra) (Derge Kagyur vol. 58, 202b-203a):

By means of speaking harsh phrases, a sentient being will be led to a hell realm; they will be led to a rebirth state as an animal: they will be led to Yama’s world. After that, even if they are born among human beings, two ripening (results) will take place: hearing unpleasing (sounds) and coming to speak fighting (words). 
(Tib.) /tshig rtsub pos ni sems can dmyal bar khrid do/ /dud 'gro'i skye gnas su khrid do/ /gshin rje'i 'jig rten du khrid do/ /de nas gal te mi rnams kyi nang du skyes na yang rnam par smin pa gnyis mngon par sgrub ste/ yid du mi 'ong ba thos pa dang / thab mo'i tshig tu 'gyur ba'o/ 

The visible sights and so on of the physical cognitive sensors are appropriated as a physical support for consciousness and mental factors, but the visible sights of body hair, feces and so on are non-appropriated as such a support. Sound itself, however, is always non-appropriated. This is because, although the physical cognitive sensors have visible sights and so on of their own, they do not have sounds of their own. Only the elements that are what sounds have as their cause include both appropriated and non-appropriated elements, such as those of sensory cognitive sensors and those of a river, but not the sounds themselves.   

Further Distinctions among the Eighteen Constituent Components

Sthiramati (Derge Tengyur vol. 209, 45B-46A) mentions further details concerning the appropriated and non-appropriated great elements of the cognitive sensors: 

Concerning (Vasubandhu’s statement), “Sound is of eight types,” there are functional phenomena that are sounds by means of their being resounded and there are sounds by means of their being heard. The Blissfully Gone Ones have declared that (of those two types, sound) is a form of physical phenomenon, established from the four (great) elements, that has become an object of ear (consciousness).
Regarding it (sound having as its cause the great elements of the cognitive sensors), the appropriated (cognitive sensors) belong to the (presently-happening) body (sensors), because they are obtained as functional phenomena that are the basis for (presently-arising) consciousness and mental factors, because they (consciousness and the cognitive sensors) are mutually compatible with each other. Concerning this, (the cognitive sensors of) the eyes and so on, that are arising from a ripening (cause) and can be enhanced, which are different from those that are presently arising, are the opposite, they are non-appropriated.
(Tib.) sgra ni rnam pa brgyad yod de/ /zhes bya ba la 'dis dngos po rnams sgrog par byed pas na sgra'o/ /yang na grag par byed pas sgra'o/ /bde bar gshegs pa pa dag na re rna ba'i yul du gyur pa'i gzugs 'byung ba bzhi las grub pa'o zhes zer ro/ /de la zin pa dag ni lus su gtogs pa rnams te/ phan tshun mthun bar byed pa'i phyir sems dang sems las byung ba dag gi rten gyi dngos por nye bar gzung ba'i phyir ro/ /de ni mig la sogs pa da ltar byung ba dang tha dad pa rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba dag ste bzlog pa ni ma zin pa dag go/  

To understand this distinction Sthiramati is drawing between the great elements of cognitive sensors that are appropriated and non-appropriated, we need further background. Vasubandhu presents this in Treasure House (I.37) (Gretil. ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 3B): 

The five (inner constituent components) that belong to the person are ones that arise from a ripening (cause) and can be enhanced. Sound is not something arising from a ripening (cause). The eight that do not impede (the motion of anything) are ones that are an outflow (corresponding to their cause) and are arising from a ripening (cause). The other (four) are (all) three types. 
(Skt.) vipākajaupacayikāḥ pañcādhyātmaṃ vipākajaḥ / na śabdaḥ apratighā aṣṭau naiḥṣyandika vipākajāḥ // tridhānye
(Tib.) /rnam par smin las byung ba dang / /rgyas las byung ba nang gi lnga/ /sgra ni rnam smin las skyes min/ /rgyu mthun las byung rnam smin skyes/ /thogs pa med brgyad gzhan rnam gsum/ /

A ripening cause (rnam-par smin-pa’i rgyu, Skt. vipākahetu) is a constructive or destructive karmic potential. The ripened result (rnam-smin-gyi ‘bras-bu, Skt. vipākaphalam) it gives rise to can only be an unspecified phenomenon. An outflow (rgyu-mthun-las bung-ba, Skt. niḥṣyanda) is a result that has come from a cause that it corresponds to. Thus, just as the revealing forms of the body have as their cause appropriated outflow elements, not the ripened elements of the body, and these outflow elements fit in the interstitial spaces between the ripened elements, so too do the revealing forms of speech have as their cause appropriated outflow elements, not the ripened elements of the body, and these outflow elements fit in the interstitial spaces between the ripened elements. 

Among the eighteen constituent components: 

  • The five inner ones belonging as the components of the physical body of a person are the five physical cognitive sensors 
  • Sound is listed separately by itself 
  • The eight that do not impede the motion of anything are the six types of consciousness, the mental cognitive sensor, and all knowable phenomena (as objects of mental consciousness) 
  • The four others are the visible sights, smells, tastes, and tactile sensations of the body.

The Five Inner Constituent Components: The Five Physical Cognitive Sensors

Vasubandhu elaborates in his Autocommentary (Gretil ed. 025.06-11, 14-20, 025.26-026.04. Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 44A-45A):

“The five (inner constituent components) that belong to a person are ones that are arising from a ripening (cause) and can be enhanced.” As for the ones that belong to a person, they are the five (physical, sensory) constituent components that are the eye (sensors) and so on. They are ones that are arising from a ripening (cause) and can be enhanced. They are not ones that are outflows (corresponding to their cause, their previous moment), because there is the case of the nonexistence of (cognitive sensors that are) an outflow which is different from that (different from being ones that are also arising from a ripening and can be enhanced).
(Skt.) / vipākajaupacayikāḥ pañcādhyātmaṃ / adhyātmaṃ tāvat pañca dhātavaḥ cakṣurādayo vipākajāścaupacayikāśca / naiḥṣyandikā na santi / tadvyatiriktaniṣyandābhāvāt/
(Tib.) / rnam par smin las skyes pa dang / /rgyas las byung ba nang gi lnga/ /re zhig mig la sogs pa nang gi khams lnga po dag ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa yang yin la| rgyas pa las byung ba yang yin no/ /rgyu mthun pa las byung ba ni med de/ de dag las ma gtogs pa rgyu mthun pa med pa'i phyir ro/

Jinaputra Yashomitra explains: (Gretil. ed, Derge, vol. 103, 64A-64B):

“The five (inner constituent components, eye-sensors and so on) that belong to a person are ones that are arising from a ripening (cause) and can be enhanced.” “They are not ones that are outflows (corresponding to their cause, their previous moment)” is the restriction. Why? “Because there is the case of the nonexistence of (cognitive sensors that are) an outflow which is different from that (different from being ones that are also arising from a ripening and can be enhanced).” 
If there are (cognitive sensors) that are arising from a ripening (cause), they should in addition also be outflows – with an outflow (still) functioning “similar to its cause (its previous moment).” (This is) because of their state of having been received through their state of also arising from a ripening (cause) and (they should be) able to be enhanced. But (cognitive sensors) that are similar to their cause (their previous moment) and which are not arising from a ripening and cannot be enhanced would here have to (also) be accepted as outflows. But “the eye (sensors) are not such types, whether they are arising from a ripening or can be enhanced.” Because of that, it is said (by Vasubandhu), “Because there is a case of the nonexistence of (cognitive sensors that are) an outflow which is different from that (different from being ones that are also arising from a ripening and can be enhanced).” 
Further, from what is it known that these are not outflows (from their previous moments)? From the non-continuance of (them in) someone who has died. Afterall, just as visible forms and so on do not continue (to be taken as cognitive objects by a corpse), the eye constituent component and so on of someone who has died (also do not continue as constituent components). 
(Skt.) vipākajaupacayikā eva paṃcādhyātmikā na naiṣyandikā ity avadhāraṇaṃ. kasmāt. tadvyatiriktaniṣyandābhāvāt. vipākajā aupacayikāś ca yady api naiṣyandikā bhavanti. niṣyando hetusadṛśa iti kṛtvā. te tu vipākajaupacayikatvenaiva saṃgṛhītatvāt. na naiṣyandikā iti gṛhyante. ye tu svahetusadṛśā na ca vipākajā na caupacayikāḥ. ta iha naiṣyandikā abhipretāḥ. na caivaṃvidhāś cakṣurādayo bhavanti. kiṃ tarhi vipākajā vā aupacayikā vā bhavantīty ata evam ucyate. tadvyatiriktaniṣyandābhāvād iti. kathaṃ punar jñāyate naiṣyandikās te na santīti. mṛtasyānanuvṛtteḥ. na hi rūpādivan mṛtasya cakṣurdhātvādayo 'nuvartante.
(Tib.) /nang gi lnga ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba kho na yin gyi rgyu mthun pa las byung ba ni ma yin no zhes bya bar nges par bzung ngo / /de ci'i phyir zhe na/ de dag las ma gtogs pa rgyu mthun pa med pa'i phyir ro/ /rgyu mthun pa ni rgyu dang 'dra ba yin pa'i phyir rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba dag kyang rgyu mthun pa las byung ba ni yin mod kyi de dag rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba nyid kho nas bsdus pa'i phyir rgyu mthun pa las byung ba'o zhes bya bar mi bzung ba'i phyir ni gang dag rang gi rgyu dang 'dra ba yang yin la rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba yang ma yin pa de dag rgyu mthun pa las byung ba yin par 'dod do/ /mig la sogs pa ni de lta bu ma yin no/ /'o na ci zhe na/ rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dang rgyas pa las byung ba dag yin te/ de'i phyir de dag las ma gtogs pa rgyu mthun pa med pa'i phyir zhes bya ba 'di smos so/ /yang de dag la rgyu mthun pa las byung ba med do zhes bya ba ji ltar shes she na/ shi ba la rjes su 'jug pa med pa'i phyir ro/ /mig gi khams la sogs pa ni gzugs la sogs pa bzhin du shi ba la rjes su 'jug pa med do/ 

During a lifetime, the physical cognitive sensors, which are comprised of the great elements, arise in each moment as a ripened result (rnam-smin-gyi ‘bras-bu, Skt. vipākaphalam) of a karmic potential as their ripening cause and can be enhanced with food and so on. But if it is pervasive that they are also outflows (rgyu mthun-pa-las byung-ba, Skt. naiṣyandikā), which means they are outflows that correspond to their previous moment as their cause, then there should be no exceptions to that. 

Each moment of a sensory cognitive sensor that is an outflow of its previous moment is part of a continuum of moments of that sensor that are similar to each other. Thus, each moment of the continuum should also give rise to its own outflow, a next moment of that sensory cognitive sensor serving as a physical support for consciousness and mental factors cognitively taking visible sights and so on as their objects. But since there are no outflow cognitive sensors serving as such a basis that follow immediately upon the death of someone – the eye sensors of a corpse do not function as a basis for cognition – then the pervasion does not hold. 

In terms of karmic results, then, the sensory cognitive sensors, composed of the great elements, are ripened results from karmic potentials, but are not outflow elements, which means they are not results that correspond to their cause.

Vasubandhu continues in his Autocommentary

(The sensory cognitive sensors that) have been enhanced by means of each (of these): food, conditioning, sleep and absorbed concentration, are enhanced ones. 
(Skt.) /āhārasaṃskārasvapnasamādhiviśeṣairupacitā aupacayikā/
(Tib.) /zas dang / legs par bya ba dang / gnyid log pa dang / ting nge 'dzin gyi khyad par dag gis rgyas par byas pa rnams ni rgyas pa las byung ba dag go/

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil. ed, Derge, vol. 103, 64B-65A) clarifies:

Out of these, food and sleep are well-known in the world. Conditioning is in the functional nature of smearing the body with oils, administering various types of enemas (Tib. massaging with medicinal butters) and so on. Absorbed concentration has the characteristic feature of single-pointedness of mind. Gathering more (strength is the meaning of) reinforcement and something that can exist in a state of reinforcement is something that can be enhanced, like the military. Further, reinforcement or enhancement is like what comes from proper behavior, because of (its) promoting health for oneself.
(Skt.) tatrāhārasvapnau loke pratītau. saṃskāro 'bhyaṃjanānānuvāsanādisvabhāvaḥ. samādhiś cittaikāgratālakṣaṇaḥ. samīpe caya upacayaḥ. upacaye bhavā aupacayikāḥ sainikavat. upacayā eva vā aupacayikāḥ vainayikavat. svārthe taddhitavidhānāt.
(Tib.) /de la zas dang gnyid log pa dag ni 'jig rten na grags pa zad do/ /legs par bya ba ni lus bsku ba dang / sman mar btang ba la sogs pa'i ngo bo nyid do/ /ting nge 'dzin ni sems rtse gcig pa nyid kyi mtshan nyid do/ /nye bar bsags pa ni rgyas pa'o/ /bsags pa la yod pa ni rgyas pa las byung ba ste dmag la yod pa bzhin no/ /yang na bsags pa nyid rgyas pa las byung ba ste 'dul ba las byung ba bzhin no/ /

Sthiramati (Derge Tengyur vol. 209, 103A) adds washing, being active and rubbing the body with oils as further methods for enhancing the sensory cognitive sensors. In A Commentary to “A Treasure House (of Special Topics of Knowledge)”: A Filigree of Abhidharma (Sera Je Library ed. 71), Chim Jampeyang adds scrapping off dead skin. 

The Constituent Component That Is Sound

 Vasubandhu continues further in his Autocommentary

(The constituent component that is) sound is one that can be enhanced and is an outflow (corresponding to its cause); it is not one that arises from a ripening (of karmic potential). What is the reason? Because of its origination from a current effort (or from a wish). 
(Skt.) śabda aupacayiko naiḥṣyandikaścāsti / vipākajaḥ / na śabdaḥ kiṃ kāraṇam / īhātaḥ pravṛtteḥ /
(Tib.) sgra ni rgyas pa las byung ba dang / rgyu mthun pa las byung ba yod kyi/ sgra ni rnam smin las skyes min/ /ci'i phyir zhe na/ 'dod dgur 'byung ba'i phyir ro/ 

Sound as a constituent component refers to the sound of a voice or the hand (snapping its fingers), which is a cognitive object of ear consciousness and has as its cause great elements that are appropriated.

Jinaputra Yashomitra (Gretil. ed, Derge, vol. 103, 65A-65B) explains:

“Sound is something that can be enhanced” because (there can be) the presentation of a sound in strong condition from an unenhanced (weak) body. “Because of its origination from a wish” (means) sound originates through the wish, “Let me make a sound.” It does not originate through the absence of a wish (to make it). A phenomenon that arises from a ripening (cause; for instance, the visible sight of the body-sensors) originates even from it being in the absence of a wish. Because of that, sound is not something that arises from a ripening (cause); and, from that, the logical proof is stated: “Sound is not something that arises from a ripening (cause), because of its origination from a wish, like the mental factor of proper attention. Whatever arises from a ripening (cause) does not have an origination by means of a wish for it, as in the case of (the origination of) the eye sensor.”  
(Skt.) śabda aupacayika ity anupacitakāyasya śabdasauṣṭhavādarśanāt. icchātaḥ pravṛtter iti. śabdo me syād iti icchayā śabdaḥ pravartate. anicchayā na pravartate. vipākajaś ca dharmo 'nicchato 'pi pravartate. tasmān na vipākajaḥ śabdaḥ. sādhanaṃ cātrocyate. na vipākajaḥ śabdaḥ. icchātaḥ pravṛtteḥ. yoniśomanasikāracaitasikavat. yat tu vipākajaṃ. na tasyecchayā pravṛttiḥ. tadyathā cakṣurindriyasyeti
(Tib.) /sgra ni rgyas pa las byung ba zhes bya ba ni lus nyam chung ba ma yin pa'i sgra gsang mtho ba mthong ba'i phyir ro/ /'dod dgur 'byung ba'i phyir ro zhes bya ba ni bdag gis sgra bsgrags par bya'o zhes bya bar 'dod na ni 'byung la mi 'dod na ni mi 'byung ngo / /rnam par smin pa las skyes pa'i chos ni mi 'dod bzhin du yang 'byung ste/ de lta bas na sgra ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa ma yin no/ / 'di la sgrub pa yang brjod par bya ste/ sgra ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa ma yin te/ 'dod dgur 'byung ba'i phyir sems las byung ba tshul bzhin yid la byed pa bzhin no/

The Eight Constituent Components That Do Not Impede: The Six Types of Consciousness, the Mental Sensor and All Knowable Phenomena 

Vasubandhu goes on in his Autocommmentary:

The eight (constituent components) that do not impede (the motion of anything) are ones that are an outflow (corresponding to their cause) and that arise from a ripening (cause). Which ones are the eight? The seven that are the constituent components that are minds (the six types of consciousness, with their accompanying mental factors, and the mental cognitive sensor) and the constituent component that is (all knowable) phenomena. They are outflows (corresponding to their cause) because they arise from equal status causes and omnipresent causes. They are ones that arise from a ripening (means) they are ones that arise from causes that ripen. They are not ones that can be enhanced because of the nonexistence of it (enhancement) in something that does not impede (the motion of anything). 
(Skt.) apratighā aṣṭau naiḥṣyandikavipākajāḥ // katame 'ṣṭau / sapta cittadhātavo dharmadhātuśca / naiḥṣyandikāḥ sabhāgasarvatragahetujanitāḥ / vipākajā vipākahetujanitāḥ / aupacayikā na santyapratighānāṃ sañābhāvāt 
(Tib.) /rgyu mthun las byung rnam smin skyes/ /thogs pa med pa brgyad/ brgyad gang zhe na/ sems kyi khams bdun dag dang / chos kyi khams te skal pa mnyam ba dang kun du 'gro ba'i rgyus bskyed pa rnams ni rgyu mthun ba las byung ba dag go/ /rnam par smin pa'i rgyus bskyed pa rnams ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dag go/ /rgyas pa las byung ba ni med de/ thogs pa med pa rnams la rgyas pa med pa'i phyir ro/

As explained above, an equal status cause is one whose results have the same ethical status as it has. An omnipresent cause (kun-du ‘gro-ba’i rgyu, Skt. sarvatragahdetu) is a disturbing emotion or attitude that gives rise to further moments of a disturbing emotion or attitude that is not necessarily of the same ethical status as it is. Such causes are omnipresent in the sense that they occur throughout the three planes of compulsive samsaric existence. Thus: 

  • Consciousness, which is unspecified, is the equal status cause of further moments of consciousness – either of the same type of consciousness or, in the case of the mental sensor, sometimes the consciousness of a different cognitive faculty. 
  • Unspecified mental factors, such as feelings, other than those mental factors that are unspecified disturbing attitudes, such as a deluded outlook toward a transitory network (‘jig-lta, Skt. satkāyaḍṛṣṭi), are also the equal status cause of further moments of either themselves or of other unspecified mental factors.
  • Unspecified disturbing attitudes can also be the omnipresent cause for destructive disturbing emotions, such as anger.
  • Destructive disturbing emotions are both the omnipresent cause and the equal status cause for further moments of themselves or of other destructive disturbing emotions.
  • Constructive mental factors, such as detachment, are the equal status for further moments of themselves or of other constructive mental factors.    

Jinaputra Yashomitra clarifies:

Outflows (of a corresponding cause) are those that have arisen from equal status and omnipresent causes. “Phenomena that have arisen only by means of equal status and omnipresent causes cannot (have arisen) from a ripening cause” – (that) is a restriction. “Those that are arising from a ripening are ones that have arisen from a ripening cause; but those that have not arisen from a ripening cause cannot be phenomena that have arisen from a ripening cause” – (that) is a restriction. But phenomena that have arisen by means of an equal status cause can be ones that are arising from a ripening. From that, it is restricted, “The eight that do not impede (the motion of anything) are ones that are an outflow (corresponding to their cause) and also arise from a ripening (cause).” They are not, however, ones that can be enhanced, because of the nonexistence of their being reinforced, because of their being phenomena having the essential nature of not being a gathering together of particles.    
(Skt.) naiṣyandikāḥ sabhāgasarvatragahetujanitā iti. sabhāgasarvatragahetubhir eva janitā na vipākahetuneti avadhāraṇaṃ. vipākajā vipākahetujanitā iti. vipākahetunā janitā eva na tu vipākahetunaiva janitā ity avadhāraṇaṃ. sabhāgahetunāpi janitā vipākajā bhavanti. tatra cāṣṭāv apratighā naiṣyandikā vipākajā evety avadhāryate. na hi et aupacayikāḥ saṃcayābhāvāt. aparamāṇusaṃcayasvabhāvatvād ity arthaḥ.
(Tib.) skal ba mnyam pa dang kun tu 'gro ba'i rgyus bskyed pa rnams ni rgyu mthun pa las byung ba dag go zhes bya ba ni skal pa mnyam pa dang kun tu 'gro ba'i rgyu dag kho nas bskyed pa yin gyi rnam par smin pa'i rgyus ni ma yin zhes nges par bzung ba yin no/ /rnam par smin pa'i rgyus pa bskyed pa rnams ni rnam par smin pa las skyes pa dag go zhes bya ba ni rnam par smin pa'i rgyus bskyed pa kho na yin gyi rnam par smin pa'i rgyu kho nas skyed pa ni ma yin zhes bya bar nges par bzung ba yin te/ rnam par smin pa las skyes pa ni skal ba mnyam pa'i rgyus kyang bskyed pa yin no/ /'dir yang thogs pa med pa brgyad ni rgyu mthun pa las byung ba dang / rnam par smin pa las skyes pa kho na yin no zhes bya bar nges par bzung ngo / /de dag bsags pa med pa'i phyir rgyas pa las byung ba ni ma yin te/ rdul phra rab bsags pa'i ngo bo nyid ma yin pa'i phyir ro zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go/

The Four Remaining Constituent Components: Visible Sights, Smells, Tastes and Physical Sensations

Vasubandhu in Autocommentary goes on:

“The others are threefold” (refers to) the other four. They are the rest: the constituent components that are visible sights, smells, tastes, and physical sensations. They are ones that are arising from a ripening (cause), as well as outflows (of a corresponding cause) and can also be enhanced.
(Skt.) tridhā 'nye anye catvāraḥ śeṣā rūparasagandhaspraṣṭavyadhātavaḥ / te vipākajā apyaupacayikā api naiḥṣyandrikā api /
(Tib.) /gzhan rnam gsum/ gzhan ni lhag ma bzhi po gzugs dang / sgra dang / dri dang / ro dang / reg bya'i khams dag ste/ de dag ni rnam par smin pa las skyes ba dag kyang yin/ rgyas pa las byung ba dag kyang yin/ rgyu mthun pa las byung ba dag kyang yin no/

Jinaputra Yashomitra clarifies:

“The others are threefold” (means) it is restricted to “only the others being threefold.” Out of those, they (visible sights and so on) refer only to the ones that are not distinct from (those of) the cognitive sensors that are arising from a ripening (cause), because of the statement, “ripened unspecified phenomena that are communicative of a sentient being.” But there are also (visible sights and so on) that are outflows and that can be enhanced that (have become) distinct from (those of) cognitive sensors that are arising from a ripening (cause). How is this possible? “There are those that are distinct from (those of) cognitive sensors that are also outflows,” because there is the presentation of the body of someone who has died that is in conformity with it (with the visible sight, smell and so on of the body when alive. The visible sight, smell and so on) that cannot be counted as those of a sentient being cannot be accepted as arising from a ripening (cause). 
(Skt.) tridhānya iti. tridhānya evety avadhāryate. tatra vipākajā indriyāvinirbhāgina eva. vipāko 'vyākṛto dharmaḥ sattvākhya iti vacanāt. naiṣyandikaupacayikās tu indriyavinirbhāgino 'pi. kathaṃ punar gamyate. indriyavinirbhāgino 'pi naiṣyandikāḥ santīti. mṛtasyāpi tadanuvṛtti darśanāt. na hy asattvasaṃkhyātā vipākajā iṣyante.
(Tib.) /gzhan rnam gsum zhes bya ba ni gzhan dag kho na rnam pa gsum yin no zhes bya ba nges par bzung ngo / /de la/ rnam smin lung du ma bstan chos/ /sems can zhes bya/ zhes 'byung ba'i phyir rnam par smin pa las skyes pa ni dbang po dang tha mi dad par 'dug pa dag kho na yin no/ /rgyu mthun pa las byung ba dang rgyas pa las byung ba ni dbang po tha dad par 'dug pa dag kyang yin no/ /yang dbang po dang tha dad par 'gyur ba dag la yang rgyu mthun pa las byung ba yod do zhes bya bar ji ltar shes she na/ shi ba la yang de rjes su 'jug pa mthong ba'i phyir te/ sems can du bgrang ba ma yin pa rnam par smin pa las skyes pa yin par ni mi 'dod do/

Summary

The revealing form of speech, then, is the type of sound that has the following characteristics. It is:

  • Causally produced from the great elements of physical cognitive sensors that are appropriated by consciousness and mental factors beneath them as a support
  • Causally produced from the great elements of those sensors that are presently happening and which are of a live person
  • Communicative that it is being produced by the work of a sentient being having the intention to speak
  • A platform for words
  • An object heard by ear consciousness
  • Divided into pleasing and unpleasing
  • Divided into many types that are constructive, destructive, or unspecified
  • Not a ripened result from a karmic potential, because then it would be exclusively unspecified
  • An outflow corresponding to its cause; in other words, a result corresponding to a previous revealing form of speech and its karmic potential as its equal status cause
  • Something that can be enhanced in strength by food, sleep and so on
  • Caused to arise (motivated) by a sensory consciousness, focused on an object for the action of the speech, and which is moved to focus on that object by a mental urge (a karmic impulse of the mind) that may or may not be preceded by an inciting karmic impulse and subsequent karmic action of the mind deciding to commit that action
  • An incited karmic impulse, but only when preceded by an inciting karmic impulse. 
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