A cognition that correctly and decisively cognizes its involved object (‘jug-yul). (1) In the Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika tenet systems, both valid non-conceptual and valid conceptual cognitions apprehend their involved objects, decisively determining them as “this” and “not that.” Thus, bare cognition, inferential cognition and subsequent cognition all apprehend their involved objects. (2) Since the Gelug Prasangika tenet system rejects subsequent cognition, only straightforward cognition and inferential cognition apprehend their involved objects. (3) In the non-Gelug systems, decisive determination (ascertainment) of an involved object, that it is “this” and “not that,” occurs only with a conceptual cognition that immediately follows a moment of non-conceptual cognition. Thus, only inferential cognition apprehends its involved object. (4) Note that in all these usages of the term, decisively determining something as "this" and "not that" does not necessarily mean understanding what something is or what something means. Thus, although "understanding" is often used as a synonym for apprehension, they are not equivalent.
Tibetan: རྟོགས་པ། rtogs-pa
J. Hopkins: Realization