A general term for both positive and negative karmic energy. A constructive or destructive phenomenon that is the first phase of the karmic force of a karmic action.(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it is equivalent to the karmic action itself, from the point of view of what will ripen into a result intermittently. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika systems, this is the case only regarding mental karmic actions. With regard to physical and verbal karmic actions, it is equivalent to the karma of the action -- both its revealing and nonrevealing forms.