A ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony ensures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them needs to understand their meaning.
Tibetan: ལུང་། lung
J. Hopkins: Scripture; Oral transmission; Passage; Precept; Injunction; Spiritual instruction