Types of Nonrevealing Forms in Vaibhashika

Three Main Types of Nonrevealing Forms

Vasubandhu states in A Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge, Put in Verses (Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod-kyi tshig-le’ur byas-pa, Skt. Abhidharmakośa-kārikā) (IV.13) (Gretil ed., Derge Tengyur vol. 104, 11A):

Nonrevealing (forms) are to be known as being of three types: a restraint, an avowed nonrestraint and what is other (than those two). A restraint (includes) what is called a pratimoksha (vowed restraint), (plus a restraint) that arises from mental constancy and likewise (a restraint from) an untainted (state). 
(Skt.) avijñaptistridhā jñeyā saṃvarāsaṃvaretarā / saṃvaraḥ prātimokṣākhyo dhyānajo ‘nāsravastathā // 
(Tib.) / rnam rig min rnam gsum shes bya/ /sdom dang sdom pa min dang gzhan/ /sdom pa so sor thar zhes bya/ /de bzhin zag med bsam gtan skyes/ 

The three types of restraint are:

  • A pratimoksha vowed restraint (so-thar sdom-pa, Skt. prātimokṣasaṃvara) – a lifelong restraint from naturally unspeakable actions (rang-bzhin kha-na ma-tho-ba, Skt. prakṛtisāvadya) (the seven destructive actions of body and speech) and proscribed unspeakable actions (bcas-pa’i kha-na ma-tho-ba, Skt. pratikṣepanasāvadya) (actions Buddha proscribed for monastics that would hamper their spiritual progress or cause disrespect from the lay community for the monastic community or for the Buddhist teachings)
  • A restraint from mental constancy (bsam-gtan-gyi sdom-pa, Skt. dhyānasaṃvara) – a temporary blockage of destructive states of mind and destructive behavior – attained with a preparatory or actual state of one of the four states of mental constancy (bsam-gtan. Skt. dhyana)
  • A restraint from an untainted state (zag-med-kyi sdom-pa, Skt. anāsravasaṃvara) – a lasting blockage of destructive states of mind and destructive behavior – attained with a true pathway mind. 

Vasubandhu gives a more general explanations of naturally uncommendable and proscribed uncommendable acts in Principles of Exegesis (rNam-par bshad-pa’i rigs-pa, Skt. Vyākhyāyukti) (Derge Tengyur vol. 136, 96B): 

Anything that can be done only with a mind having a disturbing emotion is one that is a naturally uncommendable act. Anything that, while being doable even with a mind that does not have a disturbing emotion, has been proscribed by Buddha in order to get rid of another fault is one that is a proscribed uncommendable act.
(Tib.) gang nyon mongs pa can gyi sems kho nas spyod pa de ni rang bzhin gyi kha na ma tho ba dang bcas pa yin no/ /gang nyon mongs pa can ma yin pa’i sems kyis kyang spyad par nus bzhin du nyes pa gzhan spang ba’i phyir bcom ldan‘das kyis bcas pa de ni bcas pa'i kha na ma tho ba dang bcas pa yin no/ 

Alternatively, the eleventh-century Indian scholar, Kṛṣṇa Paṇḍita, explains in An Explanatory Commentary on the Difficult Points of (Shantideva’s) “Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior” (Byang-chub sems-dpa’i spyod-pa-la ‘jug-pa’i rnam-par bshad-pa’i dka’-’grel, Skt. Bodhisattvacaryāvatāravivṛttipañjikā) (Derge Tengyur vol. 105, 300A):

Anything done with body, speech or mind that is brought on (motivated) by a destructive mind is a naturally uncommendable act. Even when not brought on by a destructive mind, everything that someone else with this circumstance (of being motivated by a destructive mind) makes one be inclined to do or forces one to do is one that is a proscribed uncommendable act.    
(Tib.) /gang zhig mi dge ba’i sems kyis kun nas bslang bas lus ngag yid gsum gyis gang byas pa de ni rang bzhin gyi kha na ma tho ba yin la/ mi dge ba’i sems kyis kun nas bslang ba yang ma yin la/ di'i rkyen gyis gzhan dag mi mos par‘gyur ba’am/ dgos pa’i las su byas pa de thams cad ni bcas pa’i kha na ma tho ba yin/

Such naturally uncommendable and proscribed uncommendable acts, defined in either of these two ways, entail both revealing and nonrevealing forms.

Vasubandhu elaborates the three types of nonrevealing forms that are restraints further in his Autocommentary to “A Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge” (Skt. Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣyā, Tib. Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod-kyi bshad-pa) (Gretil ed. 205.13-15, Derge Tengyur vol. 140, 176A):

Nonrevealing (forms) are to be known as being of three types: a restraint, an avowed nonrestraint and what is other (than those two). What is other than those two is neither a restraint nor an avowed nonrestraint. A restraint is a blockage, restraining a stream of unethical behavior.
(Skt.) avijñaptistridhā jñeyā saṃvarāsaṃvaretarā / saṃvaraścāsaṃvaraśca / tābhyāṃ cetaro naivasaṃvaro nāsaṃvaraḥ / dauḥśīlyaprasarasya saṃvaraṇaṃ saṃrodhaḥ saṃvaraḥ /
(Tib.) sdom dang sdom pa min dang gzhan/ /sdom pa dang sdom pa ma yin pa dang de dag las gzhan pa sdom pa yang ma yin/ sdom pa ma yin pa yang ma yin pa ste/ ‘chal pa’i tshul khrims kyi rgyu(d) sdom zhing ‘gogs pas na sdom pa’o/ 

Chim Jampeyang explains in A Commentary to “A Treasure House (of Special Topics of Knowledge)”: A Filigree of Abhidharma (Sera Je Library ed. 307-308):

A vowed restraint (a vow) is an abstention from harming others together with its foundation and a restraint and blockage of unethical behavior. An avowed nonrestraint is to (vow to) continually engage in harming (others) together with its foundation. Partially or sometimes abstaining from harming (others) together with the foundation for harming (them) or partially or sometimes engaging (in that) is neither a restraint nor an avowed nonrestraint, but something intermediate (an intermediate restraint). This, too, has both a revealing form and a nonrevealing form. That which abides with continuity with an occasional force of (bringing) harm or benefit is (also) a nonrevealing (form), such as the (seven) material items that are items (which, when offered, bring about) the production of positive karmic potential and so on, as mentioned before, and killing based on a promise, “Every year, I shall slaughter a sheep, and so on, as the ‘field’ (for the slaughtering).” 
Regarding these, “harm” refers to the seven destructive actions of body and speech and “its foundation” refers to the three (destructive actions) of mind. Or “harm” refers to the naturally uncommendable actions and “its foundation” refers to proscribed (uncommendable actions).
(Tib.) gzhan la gnod pa gzhi dang bcas pa spong zhing ‘chal ba’i tshul khrims kyi rgyun sdom zhing ‘gog pas na sdom pa dang/ gnod pa gzhi dang bcas pa la  rgyun du zhugs pa’i ni sdom pa min pa dang/ gnod pa’am gnod pa’i gzhi dag phyogs re spong ba’am phyogs re la ‘jug na sdom pa dang sdom min gnyis las gzhan pa’i bar ma yin no/ ‘di la ang rig byed dang rig byed ma yin pa gnyis ka yod do/ gnod pa dang phan pa’i stobs re la rgyun dang ldan par gnas pa ni rig byed ma yin pa ste sngar smos pa’i rdzas las byung ba’i bsod nams kyi gzhi bdun la sogs pa dang/ lo re re’i zhing lug la sogs pa ‘di bsad do zhes dam bcas nas gsod pa ltar bu’o/ de la gnod pa ni lus ngag gi mi dge ba bdun dang gzhi ni yid kyi gsum mam/ yang na gnod pa rang bzhin dang gzhi bcas pa’i kha na ma tho ba’o//

The nonrevealing forms that come from the (seven) material items that are items (which, when offered, bring about) the production of positive karmic potential (rdzas-las byung-ba’i bsod-nams-kyi gzhi bdun) will be discussed below.

The Existence of Nonrevealing Forms Indicated in Sutras

Vasubandhu, Treasure House (IV.4ab) (Gretil ed., Derge 11A), indicates several reasons for asserting the existence of nonrevealing forms in :

(There are nonrevealing forms) because three types (of forms) and untainted (forms) are spoken of (in sutras), as well as an increase, pathways (of karmic impulses) not enacted (by oneself), and so on.
(Skt.) trividhāmalarūpoktivṛddhyakurvatpathādibhiḥ 
(Tib.) rnam gsum dri med gzugs gsungs dang / /'phel dang ma byas lam sogs phyir/ 

Vasubandhu, Autocommentary (Gretil 196.09-10, Derge 169A), explains:

[Skt. only: Three types of form are spoken of] in a sutra: “The classification of forms of physical phenomena is of forms (grouped) by means of three types. There is a (type of) form that is visible and impeding (the presence or motion of material phenomena), there is a (type of) form that is invisible and impeding (the presence or motion of material phenomena), and there is a (type of) form that is invisible and not impeding (the presence or motion of material phenomena).” [Tib. adds: Thus, there are three types of form.]
(Skt.) trividhaṃ rūpamuktaṃ sūtre / “tribhiḥ sthānai rūpasya rūpasaṃgraho bhavati / asti rūpaṃ sanidarśanaṃ sapratigham / asti rūpamanidarśanaṃ sapratigham / asti rūpamanidarśanamapratighami"ti / anāsravaṃ ca bhagavatā rūpamuktam / 
(Tib.) /mdo las/ gnas gsum gyi gzugs kyis gzugs bsdus pa yin te/ bstan du yod la thogs pa dang bcas pa'i gzugs kyang yod/ bstan du med la thogs pa dang bcas pa'i gzugs kyang yod/ bstan du yang med la thogs pa yang med pa'i gzugs kyang yod do zhes gzugs rnam pa gsum gsungs so// 

Forms that are visible and that impede the presence or motion of material phenomena refer to objects that can be seen. Forms that are invisible and that impede the presence or motion of material phenomena are the physical sensors, such as the photosensitive cells of the eyes, which are made of particles. Forms that are invisible and that do not impede the presence or motion of material phenomena refer to nonrevealing forms. 

A similar list of three types of form is found in the Pali Canon in the Chanting Sutta (Pali: Saṅgītisutta) (33.iii.34) from the Long Discourses (Pali: Dīghanikāya), however since nonrevealing forms are not asserted in Theravada, this third type of form refers to the subtlest type of form of physical phenomenon, perhaps to forms that appear in dreams.

The classification of forms of physical phenomena is (made by means of) three types: forms that are visible and impede (the presence or motion of material phenomena), forms that are invisible and impede (the presence or motion of material phenomena) and forms that are invisible and do not impede (the presence or motion of material phenomena).
(Pali) tividhena rūpasaṅgaho – sanidassanasappaṭighaṃ rūpaṃ anidassanasappaṭighaṃ rūpaṃ, anidassanaappaṭighaṃ rūpaṃ.

Vasubandhu, Autocommentary (Gretil 196.11-14, Derge 169A), goes on:

[Skt. only: A (type of) form was also spoken of by the Bhagavan (Buddha) as untainted,] “Suppose you ask, what are untainted phenomena? Any no-longer-happening, not-yet-happening or presently-happening form in which neither attachment nor anger arises, up to any consciousness – those are spoken of as untainted phenomena.” Excluding nonrevealing (form), there is no (other) form that is invisible and not impeding (the presence or motion of material phenomena) and also that is untainted.
(Skt.) "anāsravāḥ dharmāḥ katame / yasmin rūpe 'tītānāgatapratyutpanno notpadyate 'nunayo vā pratigho vā yāvadyasminvijñāne / ima ucyante 'nāsravā dharmā" iti / na cā vijñaptiṃ virahayyāsti rūpamanidarśanamapratighaṃ nāpyanāsravam /
(Tib.) /zag pa med pa'i chos rnams kyang gang zhe na/ gzugs 'das pa dang ma 'ongs pa dang da ltar byung ba gang dang rnam par shes pa'i bar gang la rjes su chags pa'am khong khro ba mi skye ba 'di dag ni zag pa med pa'i chos rnams zhes bya'o zhes gzugs zag pa med pa yang gsungs te/ rnam par rig byed ma yin pa ma gtogs par ni bstan du yang med la thogs pa yang med pa'i gzugs kyang med la zag pa med pa yang med do/ 

The sutra from which the quote concerning untainted form is the Numbered Discourse (Skt. Ekottarāgama) (2.24), no longer extant in Sanskrit, not translated into Tibetan, but preserved in Chinese translation.

Chim Jampeyang, A Filigree of Abhidharma (297), identifies the specific nonrevealing form spoken of in the above quotation from a sutra: 

Untainted forms of physical phenomena (refer to) restraints from an untainted state.
(Tib.) zag pa med pa’i gzugs ni zag med kyi sdom pa

A restraint from an untainted state, referring to a lasting blockage of destructive states of mind and destructive behavior, is equivalent to a true stopping attained with a true pathway mind. As Vasubandhu, Treasure House (I.5a-c) (Gretil ed., Derge 2A), states: 

Untainted (phenomena include) a true pathway mind and also the three types of unaffected (static) phenomena – space and the two (types of) stoppings. 
(Skt.) anāsravā mārgasatyaṃ trividhaṃ cāpyasaṃskṛtam / ākāśaṃ dvau nirodhau ca
(Tib.) /zag med lam gyi bden pa dang / /'dus ma byas rnam gsum yang ste/ /nam mkha' dang ni 'gog pa gnyis/ /de la nam mkha' mi sgrib pa'o/

The two types of stoppings are:

  • Analytical stopping (so-sor brtags-pa’i ‘gog-pa) – a static, eternal parting and thus a true stopping (true cessation) of a portion of emotional obscurations (nyon-sgrib, Skt. kleśāvaraṇa).
  • Nonanalytical stoppings (so-sor brtags-pa min-pa’i ‘gog-pa) – a static, eternal parting from the occurrence of a result arising from a particular cause once that result has occurred from another cause.

In the aggregates of someone who has attained a restraint from an untainted state – namely, an arya – there do not arise any destructive actions together with their foundation, the disturbing emotions. Therefore, attachment and anger do not arise in their aggregates. 

Nonrevealing Forms from Offering Material items

Among the reasons Vasubandhu gives for the existence of nonrevealing forms is “because there is an increase” (‘phel, Skt. vṛddhi). This refers, within the category of nonrevealing forms that are other than restraints or avowed nonrestraints, to a nonrevealing form that arises on the mind of someone who offers seven types of material items to the monastic community, and which bring about a great increase in the positive karmic potential (bsod-nams, Skt. puṇya; merit) of the donor. Vasubandhu asserts that a nonrevealing form similarly arises in the mental continuum of someone who experiences seven nonmaterial things when directed at the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to a Thusly Gone Buddha. He quotes an unnamed source for these two lists of seven, which perhaps is The Sutra of the Seven Material Items That (When Offered) Bring about the Production of Positive Force (rDzas-las byung-ba’i bsod-nams bya-ba’i dngos-po bdun-gyi mdo, Skt. Saptaupadhikapuṇyakriyāvastu Sūtra) mentioned in The Divisions of the Full Nuns’ Rules of Discipline (dGe-slong-ma’i ‘dul-ba rnam-par ‘byed-pa, Skt. Bhikṣuṇivinayavibhaṅga) (Derge Kangyur vol. 9, 222A), but which is no longer extant.

The Tibetan title of this sutra translates as The Sutra of the Seven Items That (When Offered) Bring about the Production of Positive Karmic Potential Deriving from Material Items. In the following discussion in which the seven material items are referred to differently in the Sanskrit original and in the Tibetan translation, as is the case with the title of this sutra, we shall follow the original Sanskrit version. Likewise, when Sanskrit has “the seven nonmaterial things that bring about the production of positive karmic potential” (saptemāni niraupadhikāni puṇyakriyāvastūni) and the Tibetan translates it as “the seven things that bring about the production of karmic potential that does not derive from material items” (rdzas-las byung-ba ma-yin-pa'i bsod-nams bya-ba'i dngos-po bdun), we shall also translate in accord with the original Sanskrit.     

Vasubandhu, Autocommentary (Gretil 196.14-18, Derge 169A-B), quotes apparently from this sutra: 

“By means of these seven material items that (when offered) bring about the production of positive karmic potential, the positive karmic potential of a son of a good family or daughter of a good family who possesses it and has confident belief – whether from moving or from staying still or from being awake or from being asleep – has just been constantly and continually building up; the positive karmic potential has just been increasing. It is like that as well with the seven nonmaterial things.” And without (there being) a nonrevealing (form), it would not be appropriate for an increase of the positive karmic potential of someone else’s mind to have been gained.
(Skt.) "ebhiḥ saptabhiraupadhikaiḥ puṇyakriyāvastubhiḥ samanvāgatasya śrāddhasya kulaputrasya kuladuhiturvā carato vā svapato vā tiṣṭhato vā jāgrato vā satatasamitamabhivardhata eva puṇyamupajāyata eva puṇyam / evaṃ niraupadhikairi"ti // na cāvijñaptimantareṇānyamanaso 'pti puṇyasyābhivṛddhiryujyate /
(Tib.) /rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po bdun po 'di dag dang ldan pa'i dad pa'i rigs kyi bu'am rigs kyi bu mo ni rgyu yang rung 'dug kyang rung nyal yang rung mi nyal yang rung ste/ rtag tu rgyun mi chad par bsod nams mngon par 'phel ba kho nar 'gyur zhing bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur te/ rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa dang ldan pa yang de dang 'dra'o zhes 'phel bar yang gsungs te/ rnam par rig byed ma yin pa ma gtogs par ni yid gzhan dang ldan pa'i bsod nams kyang mngon par 'phel bar mi rung ngo /

Jinaputra Yashomitra quotes this source more fully, while abbreviating the repetition, in The Clarified Meaning, An Explanatory Commentary on (Vasubandhu’s) “Treasure House of Special Topics of Knowledge” (Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi ‘grel-bshad don-gsal-ba, Skt. Sphuṭārtha Abhidharmakośavyākhyā) (Gretil ed. 353-354, Derge Tengyur vol. 143, 8A-9A):

As for “by means of seven material items,” the item may be a grove, a monastery and so on. That which comes about from it is (from) something material. That which does not involve such a physical item is something nonmaterial. “Constantly” (means) repeatedly. “Continually” (means) without a break. 
Here, the sutra says, “The Bhagavan Buddha (the One Who Overcame and Gained All) was once residing in Kaushambi in the grove of Ghoshira and was approached by the Venerable Mahachunda. Having approached him, he (the Venerable Mahachunda), having bowed with the crown of his head to the feet of the Bhagavan, remained by himself before him. Having remained by himself, the venerable Mahachunda said this to the Bhagavan, ‘O Revered One, is there a material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential that, having been accrued, is to be known as having great results, great benefit, great brilliance, and great vastness?’ 
‘There is one that has been accrued, O Chunda,’ the Bhagavan said to him. ‘O Chunda, there are seven material items that (when offered) bring about the production of positive karmic potential having great results…’ up to ‘great vastness. The positive karmic potential of a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who possesses it and has confident belief – whether from moving or from staying still or from being awake or from being asleep – has just been constantly and continually building up; the positive karmic potential has just been increasing.
‘What are the seven? (1) Here, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, offers a grove to a monastic community of monks of the four directions. This, O Chunda, is the first material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential having great results …’ up to ‘and great vastness. By means of that (offering), the positive karmic potential of the son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who possesses it [Tib. adds: and has confident belief] …’ up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing.
(2) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who) erects a monastery in just that grove. That is the second material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential having great results….’ up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing.
(3) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who) offers in that monastery a bed, a seat (or) likewise, gives a teaching platform, a cushion, a blanket, (or) a four-cornered pillow. That, O Chunda, is the third material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential...’ as above. 
(4) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who) in that monastery invites (the monks) for a suitable offering of steady alms. That, O Chunda, is the fourth material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential having great results...’ as above. 
(5) “Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who) gives an offering to someone who arrives as a guest coming from outside (the monastery). That, O Chunda, is the fifth material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential...’ as above. 
(6) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who) gives an offering to a sick person or someone caring for the sick (in the monastery). That, O Chunda, is the sixth material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential…’  as above. 
(7) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, is a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, (who), in cold and likewise rainy places that have become cold or rainy or windy or drenched, offers food or gruel or rice water served to the monastic community and their own excellent garments to keep their bodies dry and protect (them) against rain for being able to enjoy living comfortably (in the rainy season). That, O Chunda, is the seventh material item that (when offered) brings about the production of positive karmic potential having great results…’ up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing’ [Tib. adds: as above].
‘The accrued measure of the positive karmic potential of a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who possesses it and has confident belief, that is obtainable by means of these seven items that (when offered) bring about the production of positive karmic potential is not to be taken just to the extent of the positive karmic potential or (to the extent) of the result [Skt. adds: of the positive karmic potential] or (to the extent) of the ripening [Skt. adds: of the positive karmic potential]. But rather (the measure) comes from the magnitude of the great aggregation of positive karmic potential of (this) positive karmic potential (as it builds up over time),’” like this and so on.
(Skt.) saptabhir aupadhikair iti. upadhir ārāmavihārādiḥ. tatrabhavam aupadhikaṃ. tasyopadher abhāvān niraupadhikaṃ. satatam abhīkṣṇaṃ. samitaṃ nirantaraṃ. atra sūtraṃ. bhagavān kauśāṃbyāṃ viharati sma. ghoṣirārāme. athāyuṣmān mahācundo yena bhagavāṃs tenopasaṃkrāntaḥ. upasaṃkramya bhagavataḥ pādau śirasā vanditvā ekānte 'sthāt. ekānte sthita āyuṣmān mahācundo bhagavantam etad avocat. labhyaṃ bhadanta aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu prajñapayituṃ mahāphalaṃ mahānuśaṃsaṃ mahādyutikaṃ mahāvaistārikaṃ. labhyaṃ cundeti bhagavāṃs tasyāvocat. saptemāni cundaupadhikāni puṇyakriyāvastūni mahāphalāni yāvan mahāvaistārikāṇi. samanvāgatasya śrāddhasya kulaputrasya vā kuladuhitur vā carato vā tiṣṭhato vā svapato vā jāgrato vā satatasamitam abhivardhata eva puṇyam upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. katamāni sapta. iha cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā cāturdiśāya bhikṣusaṃghāyārāmaṃ pratipādayati. idaṃ cunda prathamam aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu mahāphalaṃ yāvan mahāvaistārikaṃ. yena samanvāgatasya kulaputrasya vā kuladuhitur vā vistareṇa yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā tasminn evārāme vihāraṃ pratiṣṭhāpayati. idaṃ dvitīyam aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu mahāphalaṃ yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā tasminn eva vihāre śayanāsanaṃ prayacchati. tadyathā. mañcaṃ pīṭhaṃ bṛṣīṃ koccavaṃ bimbopadhānaṃ caturaśrakaṃ dadāti. idaṃ cunda tṛtīyam aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu pūrvavat. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro kuladuhitā vā tasminn eva vihāre dhruvabhikṣāṃ prajñāpayaty anukūlayajñām. idaṃ cunda caturtham aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu mahāphalaṃ pūrvavat. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā āgantukāya gamikāya vā dānaṃ dadāti. idaṃ cunda paṃcamam aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu pūrvavat. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā glānāya glānopasthāyakāya vā dānaṃ dadāti. idaṃ. ṣaṣṭham aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu pūrvavat. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā yās tā bhavanti śītalikā vā vaddalikā vā vātalikā vā varṣalikā vā. tadrūpāsu śītalikāsu yāvad varṣalikāsu bhaktāni vā tarpaṇāni vā yavāgūpānāni vā tāni saṃghāyābhinirhṛtyānuprayacchati. idam āryā asmākam anārdragātrāḥ anabhivṛṣṭacīvarāḥ paribhujya sukhaṃ sparśaṃ viharaṃtu. idaṃ ca cunda saptamam aupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu mahāphalaṃ. yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyam. ebhiḥ saptabhir aupadhikaiḥ puṇyakriyāvastubhiḥ samanvāgatasya śrāddhasya kulaputrasya vā kuladuhitur vā na labhyaṃ puṇyasya pramāṇam udgrahītuṃ. etāvat puṇyaṃ vā puṇyaphalaṃ vā puṇyavipākaṃ vā. api tu bahutvāt puṇyasya mahāpuṇyaskaṃdha iti gacchatīty evamādi. 
(Tib.) /rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po bdun zhes bya ba la/ rdzas ni kun dga' ra ba dang / /gtsug lag khang la sogs pa'o/ /de las byung bas na rdzas las byung ba'o/ /rdzas de med pa ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'o/ /rtag tu zhes bya ba ni yang dang yang du'o/ /rgyun mi 'chad pa ni bar chad med pa'o/ /'dir mdo ni bcom ldan 'das yul kau shAm bI na dbyangs len gyi kun dga' ra ba na bzhugs so/ /de nas tshe dang ldan pa skul byed bcom ldan 'das gal ba der song ste phyin nas bcom ldan 'das kyi zhabs la mgo bos phyag 'tshal nas phyogs gcig tu 'dug ste/ bcom ldan 'das la tshe dang ldan pa skul byed kyis 'di skad ces gsol to/ /btsun pa rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bgyi ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba phan yon che ba/ gzi brjid che brgya che ba gdags pa mchis lags sam/ bcom ldan 'das kyis de la skul byed yod do zhes bka' stsal to/ /skul byed bdun po 'di dag ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba nas rgya che ba'i bar dag yin te/ de dag dang ldan pa'i dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo ni rgyu yang rung 'dug kyang rung nyal yang rung mi nyal yang rung ste rtag tu rgyun mi 'chad par bsod nams mngon bar 'phel par 'gyur zhing bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur ro/ /bdun gang zhe na/ skul byed 'di ni dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo phyogs bzhi'i dge slong gi dge 'dun la kun dga' ra ba 'bul bar byed de skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba nas rgya che ba'i bar dang po yin te/ de dang ldan pa'i dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo zhes bya ba rgyas par bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar yin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo kun dga' rab de nyid du gtsug lag khang rtsig par byed de/ 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba gnyis pa yin pa zhes bya ba nas nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar yin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo gtsug lag khang de nyid du mal cha dang stan 'di lta ste/ khri dang khri'u dang stan nang tshangs can dang la ba dang sngas dang stan gor bu dag 'bul bar byed de/ skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po gsum pa yin zhes bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo gtsug lag khang de nyid du mchod sbyin rjes su mthun pa'i 'tsho ba nar mar 'bul bar byed de/ skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba bzhi pa yin no zhes bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo glo bur du 'ongs pa dang 'gro ba la sbyin pa sbyin par byed de/ skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po lnga pa yin no zhes bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo nad pa dang nad g.yog la sbyin pa sbyin par byed de/ 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po drug pa yin zhes bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo lhags pa 'am yul ngan nam rlung mo che 'am char 'bab pa gang dag byung na lhags pa nas char 'bab pa'i bar de lta bu dag gi tshe skyob pa 'am thug pa rnam pa sna tshogs rnam pa mang po dag byas nas 'phags pa dag bdag gi 'di gsol la sku ma gsher ba dang chos gos la char gyis ma phog par bde ba la reg par bzhugs shig ces dge 'dun dag la 'bul bar byed de/ skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba bdun pa yin zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /rdzas las byung ba'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po bdun po 'di dag dang ldan pa'i dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo'i bsod nams ni bsod nams 'di tsam zhig go zhe 'am 'bras bu rnam par smin pa 'di tsam zhes tshad gzung du med kyi 'on kyang bsod nams che ba'i phyir bsod nams kyi phung po chen po zhes bya ba'i grangs su 'gro'o zhes bya ba de lta bu la sogs pa yin no/ 

Such actions of generosity entail a revealing form of the body when making the offering and, simultaneously, a nonrevealing form that endures after the revealing form of making the offering ends. This nonrevealing form continues, on the basis of the great elements of the sequence of subsequent revealing forms of the body of the donor, to act as a condition for the recipient of the offering to benefit by making use of or by eating what was offered. In other words, the fact that the donor made the offers is the circumstance that enables the recipients of the offerings to make use of them. The increase in positive karmic potential of the donor is proportionate to the amount of benefit the recipients of the offering receive after having made use of or having eaten them. 

Similarly, actions of giving to others material items that will cause harm, such as giving them weapons, likewise entail revealing and nonrevealing forms, with the nonrevealing forms also functioning in the same way as in the case of making offerings of material items that bring benefit. The negative karmic potential (sdig-pa, Skt. pāpa) of these nonrevealing forms likewise increases in strength in proportion to the amount of harm inflicted by the recipients of the weapons, for instance, on the victims on whom they are used.  

Nonrevealing Forms from Nonmaterial Things

Jinaputra Yashomitra, Clarified Meaning (Gretil 354, Derge 9B-10A), quotes and abbreviates this sutra further:

“Then once more for a second time the Venerable Mahachunda said this to the Bhagavan Buddha, ‘O Revered One, is there a nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential that, having been accrued, is to be known as having great benefit …’ up to ‘great vastness?’ 
‘There is one that has been accrued, O Chunda,’ the Bhagavan said to him. ‘O Chunda, there are seven nonmaterial things that bring about (the production of) positive karmic potential. By means of them, the positive karmic potential of a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who possesses it and who has confident belief – whether from moving or from staying still …’ up to ‘has just been increasing.
‘What are the seven? (1) Here, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, hears that the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha is dwelling based in a certain town or area, and hearing (that), they gain becoming endowed with joy and delight, vast and constructive, and the determination to go forth (from householder life). This, O Chunda, is the first nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential’ … up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’ as before. 
(2) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, hears that the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha has undertaken to come (nearby), “and hearing (that), they again gain [Tib. adds: becoming endowed with joy and delight] …” as before. “This, O Chunda, is the second nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential,’ [Tib. adds: … up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’] as before. 
(3) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, hears that the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha has commenced on the road for a journey that (will bring him) to [Skt. adds: reach] the town or area, and hearing (that), they again gain [Tib. adds: becoming endowed with joy and delight] ….’ as before. ‘This, O Chunda, is the third nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential’ … up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’ as before.  
(4) ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, hears that the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha has arrived in the town or area, and hearing (that), they again gain [Tib. adds: becoming endowed with joy and delight] …’ as before. ‘This, O Chunda, is the fourth nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential’ … up to ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’ as before.   
[5] ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, goes for an auspicious beholding of the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha, and beholding (him), “they again gain …’ as before. ‘This, O Chunda, is the fifth nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential.’ [Tib. adds: … up until ‘the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’] as before. 
[6] ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, listens to the Dharma from the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha, and hearing (that), they gain [Tib. adds: becoming endowed with joy] …’ as before. ‘This, O Chunda, is the sixth nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential.’ [Tib. adds: … up until “the positive karmic potential has just been increasing,’] as before.
[7] ‘Further, next, O Chunda, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family, who has confident belief, listens to the Dharma from the Thusly Gone Buddha or a shravaka listener to the Thusly Gone Buddha, and hearing it, goes for refuge in the Buddha, goes for refuge in the Dharma, goes for refuge in the Sangha and takes on the stages of the trainings. This, O Chunda, is the seventh nonmaterial thing that brings about the production of positive karmic potential …’” as before. 
Fearing that the text would become too large, not everything has been spelled out.      
(Skt.) dvir apy āyuṣmān mahācundo bhagavantam etad avocat. labhyaṃ bhadanta niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu prajñapayituṃ mahāphalaṃ yāvan mahāvaistārikaṃ. labhyaṃ cundeti bhagavāṃs tasyāvocat. saptemāni cunda niraupadhikāni puṇyakriyāvastūni. yaiḥ samanvāgatasya śrāddhasya kulaputrasya vā kuladuhitur vā carato vā tiṣṭhato vā vistareṇa yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. katamāni sapta. iha cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā śṛṇoti tathāgataṃ vā tathāgataśrāvakaṃ vā amukaṃ grāmakṣetram upaniśritya viharatīti. śrutvā ca punar adhigacchati prītiprāmodyam udāraṃ kuśalaṃ naiṣkramopasaṃhitaṃ. idaṃ cunda prathamaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu pūrvavat yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā śṛṇoti tathāgataṃ vā tathāgataśrāvakaṃ vā udyuktam āgamanāya. śrutvā ca punar adhigacchatīti pūrvavat. idaṃ cunda dvitīyaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā śṛṇoti tam eva tathāgataṃ vā tathāgataśrāvakaṃ vā adhvānamārgapratipannaṃ tad eva grāmakṣetram anuprāptaṃ. śrutvā ca punar adhigacchatīti pūrvavat. idaṃ cunda tṛtīyaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu. yāvad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā śṛṇoti tathāgataṃ vā tathāgataśrāvakaṃ vā tad eva grāmakṣetram anuprāptaṃ. śrutvā ca punar adhigacchatīti pūrvavat. idaṃ cunda caturthaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu pūrvavat. yavad upajāyata eva puṇyaṃ. punar aparaṃ śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā tam eva tathāgataṃ vā tathāgataśrāvakaṃ vā darśanāyopasaṃkrāmati. dṛṣṭvā ca punaḥ adhigacchatīti pūrvavat. idaṃ cunda pañcamaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu. punar aparaṃ cunda śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā tasyaiva tathāgatasya vā tathāgataśrāvakasya vā antikād dharmaṃ śṛṇoti. śrutvā ca punar adhigacchatīti. pūrvavat. idaṃ cunda ṣaṣṭhaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu. punar aparaṃ śrāddhaḥ kulaputro vā kuladuhitā vā tasyaiva tathāgatasya vā tathāgataśrāvakasya vā antikād dharmaṃ śṛṇoti. śrutvā ca buddhaśaraṇaṃ gacchati dharmaśaraṇaṃ gacchati saṃghaśaraṇaṃ gacchati. śikṣāpadāni ca pratigṛhṇāti. idaṃ cunda saptamaṃ niraupadhikaṃ puṇyakriyāvastu mahāphalam iti pūrvavat. bahugranthabhayān na sarvaṃ likhitaṃ. 
(Tib.) /lan gnyis kyi bar du yang bcom ldan 'das la tshe dang ldan pa skul byed kyis 'di skad ces gsol to/ /btsun pa rdzas las byung ba ma lags pa'i bsod nams bgyi ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba nas rgya che ba'i bar gdags su mchis lags sam/ bcom ldan 'das kyis de la skul byed gdags su yod do zhes bka' stsal to/ /skul byed bdun po 'di dag ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po yin te/ de dag dang ldan pa'i dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo ni rgyu yang rung 'dug kyang rung zhes bya ba rgyas par bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar gsungs so/ /bdun gang zhe na/ skul byed 'di la dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos grong ngam zhing che ge mo zhig na rten cing bzhugs so zhes thos shing thos nas kyang yang dga' ba dang rab tu dga' ba rgya che ba dge ba nges par 'byung ba dang ldan pa 'thob ste skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po dang po yin no zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur ro zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu dang rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos tshur gshegs par rtsom pa thos shing thos nas kyang yang dga' ba dang rab tu dga' ba thob ste zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po gnyis pa yin zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur ro zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos de nyid grong ngam zhing de kho na'i lam du zhugs so zhes thos shing thos nas kyang yang dga' ba thob po zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos grong ngam zhing de nyid du phyin par thos shing thos nas kyang yang dga' ba thob ces bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po bzhi pa yin zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos nyid lta ba'i phyir 'gro zhing mthong nas kyang yang dga' ba thob ces bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po snga ma bzhin zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye bar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos de nyid las chos thos shing thos nas kyang yang dga' ba thob ces bya ba snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po drug po yin zhes bya ba nas bsod nams nye bar skye ba kho nar 'gyur zhes bya ba'i bar snga ma bzhin no/ /skul byed gzhan yang dad pa'i rigs kyi bu 'am rigs kyi bu mo de bzhin gshegs pa 'am de bzhin gshegs pa'i nyan thos de nyid las chos thos shing chos thos nas kyang sangs rgyas la skyabs su 'gro/ chos la skyabs su 'gro/ dge 'dun la skyabs su 'gro la/ bslab pa'i gnas dag kyang 'dzin par byed de/ skul byed 'di ni rdzas las byung ba ma yin pa'i bsod nams bya ba'i dngos po 'bras bu che ba bdun pa yin zhes bya ba snga ma bzhin te/ gzhung mang du dogs pas thams cad ni ma bris so/

Vasubandhu and his commentators do not explain how a nonrevealing form arises from a non-karmic functional impulse of hearing – for instance, hearing that a Buddha is dwelling in a nearby town – and from the karmic urges that drive the mental actions of thinking vast, constructive thoughts with joy, delight and renunciation. As the Sautrantika critique of Vaibhashika points out, neither a revealing form of the body or speech nor a state of mental constancy arises.

Nevertheless, just as a nonrevealing form is gained from experiencing joy, delight and so on when hearing that a Buddha is dwelling in a nearby town, similarly one gains a nonrevealing form when rejoicing in any constructive action done by others. Vaibhashika would explain that it is due to having gained a nonrevealing form that one builds up great positive karmic potential from rejoicing.

Nonrevealing Forms from Ordering Others to Commit a Harmful Action

Among the reasons Vasubandhu gives for the existence of nonrevealing forms, he also lists, “pathways (of karmic impulses) not enacted (by oneself)” (ma-byas lam, Skt. akurvatpatha). This refers to when someone or a group of people order someone else or a group of other people to commit a harmful action. The revealing form of speech involved with the giving of the order also simultaneously gives rise to a nonrevealing form that continues on the basis of the great elements of the sequence of subsequent revealing forms of the bodies of the person or persons who give the order. The negative karmic potential that accrues from this nonrevealing form on the mental continuum of the person or persons who gave the order increases in strength in proportion to the harm received by the victims inflicted by the person or persons they ordered. 

Vasubandhu, Autocommentary (Gretil 196.18-20, Derge 169B), explains:

Pathways of a karmic impulse not enacted by oneself but caused to be enacted by others would not be established in the case of (the existence of) nonrevealing forms being false. The revealing (form) of ordering [Skt. only: as a root] alone could not connect itself to (being) the pathway of a karmic impulse (of the body) [Tib.: would not be fit for being a pathway of a karmic impulse of the body] “because of the non-enactment of that (one who gave the order) of what is to be enacted [Tib. because that (one who gave the order) did not enact it] and because of the lack of modification in the essential nature of that (revealing form from being a revealing form of speech to being a revealing form of the body) even when it (the deed that has been ordered) has been enacted.
(Skt.) akurvataśca svayaṃ paraiḥ kārayataḥ karmapathā na sidhyeyurasatyāmavijñaptau / nahyājñāpanavijñaptiḥ maulaḥ karmapatho yujyate / tasya karyaṇo 'kṛtatvāt / kṛte 'pi ca tasyāḥ svabhāvāviśeṣāditi /
(Tib.) /rnam par rig byed ma yin pa med na bdag nyid kyis ma byas la/ gzhan dag byed du bcug pa'i las kyi lam dag 'grub par mi 'gyur te/ lung du bsgo ba tsam gyis las kyi lam du mi rung ste/ las de ma byas pa'i phyir ro/ /byas su zin kyang de'i rang gi ngo bo la khyad par med pa'i phyir ro/

Jinaputra Yashomitra. Clarified Meaning (Gretil 354-355, Derge 10A), explains further:

The revealing (form) of ordering alone could not connect itself to (being) a pathway of a karmic impulse (of the body) because of its non-enactment of taking a life and so on (by the person who gave the order). Perhaps it is thought, “Upon that karmic impulse having been enacted, then the karmic pathway of the revealing (form) of ordering (the taking of a life) would come into existence (as a pathway of a karmic impulse of the body).” Because of that, this is said, “Because of the lack of modification in the essential nature of that (revealing form from being a revealing form of speech to being a revealing form of the body) even when it has been enacted.” Even upon that karmic impulse having been enacted by someone else, there would not be any modification at all of the essential nature of that revealing form of ordering (still being a revealing form of speech). 
(The essential nature) of a pathway of a karmic impulse now (whether it is a pathway of a karmic impulse of body or of speech) is (set) from like it was before, because there is no modification of its essential nature. The way in which the pathway of a karmic impulse has not been set before – like that is just the way in which it later (remains). It must be admitted that the (category in which) the pathway of a karmic impulse is included when it arises is (the category) in which it (remains) now.
(Skt.) na hy ājñāpanavijñapteḥ karmapatha upayujyate. tasya prāṇātipātādikarmaṇo ‘kṛtatvāt. syān mataṃ. kṛte tasmin karmaṇi tadājñāpanavijñapteḥ karmapatho bhaviṣyatīti. atra idam ucyate. kṛte ‘pi ca tasyāḥ svabhāvāviśeṣād iti. pareṇa kṛte ‘pi tasmin karmaṇi tasyā ājñāpanavijñapter na kaścit svabhāvaviśeṣo ‘sti.yena tadānīṃ karmapathaḥ syāt. tasmāt pūrvavat. tasyāḥ svabhāvāviśeṣāt. yathaiva pūrvavat karmapatho na vyavasthāpyate. tathaiva paścād ity ato ‘stīty abhyupagantavyā yāsau tadānīm utpadyate karmapathasaṃgṛhīteti. 
(Tib.) yathaiva hi karttā tathā / srog gcod pa la sogs pa’i las de ma byas pa’i phyir ro/ /gal te las de byas na de la lung bsgo ba las kyi lam du ‘gyur ro snyam du sems na/ de’i phyir byas su zin kyang de’i rang gi ngo bo la khyad par med pa’i phyir zhes bya ba smos te/ gzhan gyi las de byas su zin kyang lung bsgo ba de la ni gang gis na de’i tshe las kyi lam du ‘gyur ba rang gi ngo bo la khyad par cung zad kyang med do/ /da lta bas na snga ma bzhin du de’i rang gi ngo bo la khyad par med pa’i phyir ji ltar sngar gyi las kyi lam du rnam par mi gzhag pa ltar phyis kyang de kho na dang ‘dra’o/ /de bas na de’i tshe las kyi lam gyis bsdus pa skye ba gang yin pa de yod do zhes bya bar khas blang bar bya dgos so/ /

The revealing form of the karmic impulse of a general giving an order to soldiers to take the lives of enemy troops is a karmic impulse of speech and occurs in a pathway of a karmic impulse of speech –– in other words, the sound of the general’s spoken words arise as a method for implementing an action of speech. This revealing form is set as a revealing form of speech and cannot alter its essential nature and become a revealing form of the body when the killing of enemy soldiers is enacted, since the general did not actually enact the killings. The only way to explain the general building up negative karmic potential from the soldiers enacting the killing is by means of a nonrevealing form of speech that the general gains. 

Vasubandhu, Treasure House (IV.72cd) (Gretil ed., Derge 13B), states this point: 

In wars and so on, from there being one (aim) that is to be done, all possess (the negative karmic potential of a nonrevealing form) as does the agent. 
(Skt.) senādiṣvekakāryatvāt sarve karttṛvadanvitāḥ //
(Tib.) /dmag la sogs par don gcig phyir/ /thams cad byed pa po bzhin ldan/

Vasubandhu, Autocommentary (Gretil 243.07-13, Derge ed. 140, 203A-B), elaborates:

When a group of many (people) precipitate the aim of killing others in making wars, hunts and attacks, and one (person they order) commits the taking of a life, who becomes endowed (with the negative karmic potential of a nonrevealing form) by means of it? 
“In wars and so on, from there being one (aim) that is to be done, all possess (the negative karmic potential of a nonrevealing form) as does the agent.” Just like the agent (of the killing), likewise all (who ordered the killing) become endowed (with negative karmic potential of a nonrevealing form), because, from this aim, they become linked with one another. 
Then what about someone who is led (into killing) by the force (of the order)? That (person) as well becomes endowed (with the negative karmic potential of a nonrevealing form), except (in the case of) someone who goes (to battle), having decided thusly, “I shall not kill living beings to the extent of even for the cause of (my) life.” 
Further, the (relevant) defining characteristic (of the type of nonrevealing form) spoken about has been said (to apply to causing others to commit any of the rest of the ten destructive actions): “To the extent that there is a pathway of the karmic impulse of oneself having committed the taking of a life (having ordered someone else to do so), to that extent there is (also) a pathway of a karmic impulse (of the rest of the ten destructive actions) up to thinking distortedly with antagonism (having caused someone else to do, speak or think so).”
(Skt.) yatsenāpātamṛgayāvaskandheṣu pareṣāṃ vadhārthaṃ bahavaḥ samagrāḥ patantyekaśca prāṇātipātaṃ karoti kastena samanvāgato bhavati/ senādiṣvekakāryatvāt sarve kattṛvadanvitāḥ / yathaiva hi karttā tathā sarve samanvāgatā bhavantyekakāryatvāt / arthato hi te ‘nyonyaṃpayoktāro bhavanti / yastarhi balānnīyate so’pi samanvāgato bhavatyanyatra ya evaṃ naścitya yāyāt yāvajjīvitahetorapi prāṇinaṃ na haniṣyāmīti / kiyatā punaḥ prāṇātipātaṃ svayaṃ kurvataḥ karmapatho bhavati kiyatā yāvanmithyādṛṣṭiḥ karmapathaḥ iti lakṣaṇaṃ vaktavyaṃ taducyate /
(Tib.) /gang dmag gis gdab pa dang / lings 'debs pa dang / ma 'phrigs par gdab pa dag tu pha rol po gsad par bya ba'i phyir mang po tshogs pas btab la gcig cig gis srog gcod na de dang su zhig ldan par 'gyur zhe na/ dmag la sogs par don gcig phyir/ /thams cad byed pa blo bzhin ldan/ /don gcig pa'i phyir thams cad byed pa po ji lta ba bzhin ldan par 'gyur te/ de dag ni don gyis na phan tshun du sbyor bar byed pa yin no/ /'o na gang zhig nan gyis khrid pa de ji lta bu zhe na/ de yang ldan par 'gyur ba ste/ gang zhig 'di snyam du sog gi phyir yang srog chags mi gsod de zhes bya bar nges bar byas te 'gro ba ni ma gtogs so//rang gi srog gcod par byed pa la ji tsam gyis las kyi lam du 'gyur zhes bya ba nas ji tsam gyis na log par lta ba'i las kyi lam du 'gyur zhes bya ba'i mtshan nyid brjod par bya ste/ de brjod do/

Although it is not possible to order someone to think covetously, think with malice or think distortedly with antagonism in the same way as ordering a soldier to execute a prisoner, it is possible to affect someone else’s thoughts through advertising, spreading false information and propaganda, and brainwashing.

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