States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.

Tibetan: mi-dge-ba

Sanskrit: akushala

J Hopkins: non-virtue, non-virtuous.

Other languages

العربية: هدام
Italiano: distruttivo
Русский: разрушительный

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