States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. According to Vasubandhu, they include the disturbing emotions of attachment, hostility, naivety, having no sense of values and having no scruples, actions motivated by any of them, primary consciousness and other mental factors that accompany any of them, and samsara in general. The term carries no connotation of moral judgment.
Tibetan: མི་དགེ་བའི་ཆོས། mi-dge-ba'i chos
J. Hopkins: Non-virtue
Synonyms: Nonvirtuous phenomena; Unwholesome phenomena