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General Application of the Seven Ways of Knowing
Introduction Our topic for this weekend is “ways of knowing” or lorig in Tibetan. This is a very helpful topic because it deals with how we know anything, how we know that what we know is correct, and how we know that it is decisive. It very much affects how we proceed on the...
Elaboration of “Lorig: Ways of Knowing”
A Mere Making of Appearances and Cognizing Them
The Meaning of “Mind” in Buddhism I’ve been asked to come here this weekend to teach about appearances (snang-ba), how the mind makes appearances and the various problems that are associated with that. This is not a very simple topic, because in fact all our problems come...
The Nature of Appearances: Gelug Explanation
Introduction, Apprehension and Presumptive Cognition
Preface Among the Tibetans, the Buddhist monasteries have traditionally been the great centers of learning. The educational system followed by many of them, such as Ganden, Sera and Drepung of the Gelug tradition, is modeled on that introduced more than a thousand years ago...
Commentary on “Compendium of Ways of Knowing” – Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey
Buddhist Analysis: Types of Phenomena
Introduction We are going to begin our discussion of Buddhist metaphysics. This is a large topic which covers an enormous amount of material, and all of this material is quite difficult; it is very complex, with many, many different items that are involved. But I think the...
Using Buddhist Metaphysics to Analyze a Problem
Negations and Affirmations
Introduction This weekend we are going to be speaking about negations (dgag-pa) and affirmations (sgrub-pa). And although there are quite different explanations of this in the different Tibetan traditions, we’ll present here only the presentation that we find in the Gelug...
Negation Phenomena: How to Focus on Emptiness
Indispensable Ways of Cognizing That Appear in Mental Activity
The mind gives rise to many types of appearances, in terms of both the objects of cognition and the ways of cognizing them that arise. In both cases, what arises may be accurate or inaccurate, pure or impure, tainted or untainted, samsaric or nirvanic. Why is it important to...
Types of Appearances Mind Gives Rise To: Gelug Explanation
Temporally Related Phenomena
Introduction The past, the present, and the future are important topics to study on the Buddhist path. This is because, for the purification of karma, it is helpful to understand the nature of past destructive actions that we have committed and their future karmic results....
A Buddha's Knowledge of the Past, Present and Future
Understanding Something: Apprehension
Introduction to the Topic This evening we’re going to be exploring the topic “What does it mean to understand something?” And this is obviously a very important topic and one which is not really traditionally dealt with in Dharma presentations. But obviously we need to...
Elaboration of "What Does It Mean to Understand Something?"
Mental Labeling and Imputation
To understand the Gelug Prasangika presentation of dependent arising (rten-’byung ’brel-ba) and the voidness of self-established existence (rang-bzhin-gyis grub-pa; inherent existence), we need to understand the distinctions this school draws between imputation, mental...
Imputation, Mental Labeling and Designation
Context of Ways of Knowing, Bare Perception
Introduction This evening we are going to be speaking about ways of knowing; in other words cognition theory, and how it is that we know things – how our cognition actually works. This is an important topic since it relates very much to how we experience the four noble...
Seven Ways of Knowing Objects