(1) In the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their not being merely imputed by conceptual cognition. They include all nonstatic phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all nonstatic phenomena and are deepest true phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include not only all nonstatic superficial true phenomena, but also the static deepest true phenomena of voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (2) In the Gelug tradition, the appearing objects of only valid non-conceptual cognitions, although they are what actually appears and can be validly cognized in both valid non-conceptual and conceptual cognition. (3) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid non-conceptual cognition.
Tibetan: རང་མཚན། rang-mtshan
J. Hopkins: Specifically characterized phenomenon
Synonyms: Individually characterized phenomena